Task 5 – Written Report
The development of generating artificial organs will be beneficial towards patients with terminal organ diseases although the steps and processes taken towards the outcome of artificial organs will greatly affect the morals of people in modern society.
Reproduction is a rudimentary part of life. It is important because without it; a species would not be able to propagate or survive from generation to generation. Reproduction is a biological process where new offspring organisms are produced from their parents. Every individual organism exists because of reproduction. There are two methods of natural reproduction known as sexual and asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction involves an individual reproducing without the involvement of another individual. No gametes (sex cells) are involved during the process of asexual reproduction but instead cell division occurs; in which a mother cell divides to form two daughter cells. (Figure 1 – Cell Division) Cell division includes the division of the nucleus therefore it is essential for the genetic information in the nucleus to be passed on accurately from the mother cell to the daughter cells. This process by which genetic information is passed on accurately through the division of the nucleus is called mitosis. The daughter cells are exact clones of the single parent cell and thus have the same genes and chromosomes as the mother cell. An example of this method of reproduction is cloning. When asexual reproduction occurs; the offspring turns out as an identical copy or genetically similar organism as their parent therefore there is no genetic variety, making it impossible for these organisms to adapt to environmental changes. Sexual reproduction involves the reproduction of offspring through two individuals. These offspring inherit genetic characteristics from both parents. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two gametes (sex cells: eggs and sperm) to form a zygote, and these gametes are produced by the cell division called meiosis. (Figure 1- Cell Division) Meiosis is a division of the nucleus that reduces the chromosome number in the parent nucleus by half and produces four haploid daughter nuclei. Sexual reproduction allows for each of the parents to contribute half of the offspring’s genetic makeup by creating haploid genes, thus this organism will have genetic variety and will be able to adapt with environmental changes.
Cloning is the process of when a genetically identical copy of biological matter is created. The cloning of embryos holds promise for the future treatment of terminal organ diseases. Two methods of cloning exists called Reproductive cloning and Therapeutic cloning. Reproductive cloning has the capability to possibly develop human donor organs for humans with defective organs or patients that are in need for organ transplants. This process is done through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). SCNT involves the DNA molecules being transferred from...