Cloning Definitions, Pros, Cons. Essay

1626 words - 7 pages

CloningThe purpose of this paper is to discuss cloning. In this paper I will discuss the following: the threetypes of cloning, reasons for cloning, reasons not to clone, cloning issues and the politics of cloning.The definition of clone is one or more identical organisms descended asexually from a singleancestor ,that makes it sound so simple.(1:132) Cloning isn't simple at all, it is actually a very complexissue. To understand cloning you must first know how it works. First of all a nucleus containing anindividuals genetic code is removed from an egg cell. That nucleus is replaced with the nucleus from abody cell (like a skin cell) from a donor. This combination of the two cells is then activated , mostcommonly by an electric current. If all of this goes well an embryo begins to develop.There are three types of scientific cloning. First there is embryo cloning which produces identicaltwins or triplets. This procedure is just the same as the natural way twins are produced, except that it'splanned. In the beginning one or more cells are extracted from a fertilized embryo, then the cells areimpelled to develop into more matching embryos. The result is a set of identical twins or triplets. Embryocloning has been done on several species of animals. There has only been restricted experiments conductedon humans.Adult cloning is another type of cloning. Also called reproductive cloning this procedure is used togenerate a duplicate of an already living animal. To do this one begins by removing DNA from an ovum.This DNA is replaced by DNA removed from an adult animal's cell. Now the fertilized ovum, called apre-embryo , is placed into a womb. There it develops into a new baby animal. Reproductive cloning hasonly been tested on animals.Therapeutic cloning (or biomedical cloning) may be the most useful type of cloning, in myopinion. The beginning steps in this procedure are the same as those in Adult DNA cloning. However thestem cells are removed from the pre-embryo with the intention of making whole organ or some tissue for theperson whose DNA was used.Cloning is a very delicate procedure. Many things can, and do, go wrong when attempting any typeof cloning.(3:1) The embryos being used are quite fragile. If an embryo gets knocked or bumped whilebeing handled in the lab there can be unfortunate results. (3:1) Damaged embryos may be the cause of largeoffspring syndrome. Large offspring syndrome occurs when a clone is born abnormally big.(3:1) Anothermalfunction in the cloning process can take place when the embryo doesn't develop properly. This happenswhen the chemicals used to nurture the cells aren't correct. Scientists are working on getting thesechemicals to just the right mixture.(3:1) Before normal reproduction takes place, sperm and eggs areprogrammed by the body so that they are ready to create a new being.(3:2) Cloned embryos seem to missout on some of this programming which results in more clones dieing before they are born.(3:2)Cloning could be...

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