This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Coastal Migration To Te Americas Essay

1485 words - 6 pages

According to the standard accepted theory, the Clovis people were the first inhabitants of the Americas. The Clovis people crossed the Beringia land bridge during the period of the last ice age, from there they spread across the Americas through an ice free-corridor. However, recent finding have suggested that the first people did not walk to America but came by boat. This paper will examine evidence found in Haida Gwaii and other sites along North and South America that supports a different view of human migration to the Americas, the coastal migration theory.

The peopling of the Americas “was the last great human migration, the final leg of our journey out of Africa” (Bawaya, M. How ...view middle of the document...

..). Secondly, futher evidence comes from the numerous artifacts that pre-date the Clovis, “including an astonishingly well-preserved site in South America predating the supposed migration by at least 1,000 years” (Hadingham, E. America's First Immigrants).

These new discoveries have forced scholars to reexamine and come up with other ideas about when and how people enetered the Americas. Hadingham asks, “If the first Americans did arrive well before the oldest known Clovis settlements, how did they get here?” (Hadingham, E. America's First Immigrants). Gugliotta proposes that “maybe the first Americans didn’t walk here but came in small boats and followed the coastline”(Gugliotta, The first Americans). This paper will examine the archeological evidence found along North and South America that supports this view of coastal human migration to the Americas.

Haida Gwaii

As Hetherington points out, Haida Gwaii would have needed a suitable habitat to support a human population for a coastal migration; Hetherington states that, “The hypothesis that the first peoples of North and South America migrated via a coastal route carries with it the presumption that the Queen Charlotte Island region had a suitable climate and sufficient natural resources to make habitation possible” (Hetherington et al. Late Pleistocene). In Fedje's book, Human History & Environment from the Time of the Loon to the Time of the Iron People, Fredje shows that Haida Gwaii may have been habitable at this time, saying that “the Northwest Coast was deglaciated and available for human migration and habitation by at least 13,500 BP, while the hypothesized ice-free corridor would not have been passable until after 11,000 BP” (Fedje, time of the loon 53). Fedje also says that, “The dramatic sea level changes at the end of the last glaciation, which resulted in the exposure of large banks in Hecate Strait, caused a near twofold increase in land area for Haida Gwaii compared with today.” (Fedje, time of the loon 52). Erlandson says that these low-relief areas “may have offered broad expanses of productive intertidal and near shore habitats for early maritime peoples to hunt, forage, and gather in” (Erlanson, life of the edge). Unfortunately, much of the early history of Haida Gwaii lies deep below the waters of Hecate Strait as a result of rapid rising “of postglacial sea levels” (Fedje, time of the loon 3); “and although these would make excellent potential early habitable landscapes, they are now drowned and difficult to access” (Hetherington Later Pleistocene). Erlandson says that, “Given the difficulties posed by the Pacific Coast's history of glaciation, sea level rise, marine erosion, and landscape change, recent research has focused on finding early archaeological sites in settings where evidence of coastal or maritime occupations might be expected” (Erlandson, life on the edge). This effort has produced numerous intertidal sites which are revealing new insights regarding...

Find Another Essay On Coastal migration to te Americas

The History of Indigenous Peoples in America

3024 words - 12 pages much of the earth’s water was trapped in glacial ice, sea level was lower. The continental shelves and the floor of the Bering and Chukchi seas were exposed, creating the Bering Land Bridge. The geography of the Ice Age limited possible migration routes into the Americas to the following: the Beringian mid-continental, the Northwest Coastal, the Pacific, and the Atlantic routes. The Beringian mid-continental route presumes that hunters and

Bicultural Education Describe the historical development of one issue of concern to Maori and critically examine the events, attitudes and beliefs that relate to this issue Discuss the significance...

2041 words - 8 pages that the opportunities for development could be missed if they didn't.Interestingly Maori was the predominant language in New Zealand prior to the 1840's, according to, but the Native Schools Act in 1867 decreed only English should be spoken and not Te Reo, an Act that was later overly enforced. It was only through the urban migration over the 1940's that the decline of the language and the culture stats it's decline

The Role of Travel

1703 words - 7 pages Americas and, American soldiers in Vietnam, depicted in Francis Coopla’s film “The Apocalypse Now: Redux.” The negative effects of other forms of travel include the travels of migration to London by Caribbean’s in Sam Selvon’s The Lonely Londoners. Through travel you are provided with means to learn about a nation and to engage in foreign cultures firsthand nevertheless, some forms of travel are unconstructive towards the learning process. In

Migrations in the Modern Era

1092 words - 5 pages African Diaspora, is known as the largest forced migration in human history. It was around this time that Europeans wanted labor for working sugar plantations, farming and growing crops and mining precious metals like silver. They bought and shipped slaves to America and oversaw them work while slowly building a small economic base in the Americas. By 1849, another large migration was taking place. January 24th, 1848 marks the date of the

The Independence of Spainish Colonies in America

1150 words - 5 pages The Spanish empire in the Americas faced huge political, social and economic problems in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The empire was stretched to its limit politically and socially with the threat of an uprising from the slave population in its empire. The economy also played a major role and the outlook was just as bleak for Spain with the American colonies drifting towards independence. Spain did not seem able to cope with its

What is the Significance of Hawaiki in Māori Oral Traditions?

1916 words - 8 pages (formal speech or oratory), whakatauki (proverbial speech), waiata (song) and pakiwaitara (stories and mythology). The purpose of Oral traditions especially in Te Ao Māori (the Māori world) is to pass on, retain or remember knowledge and information. Another extremely important aspect of oral tradition especially for Maori is communication. Karakia is communication between the people and Atua. Whaikōrero is used today as communication between

Increasing Eel Migration

2347 words - 10 pages the Te Hueke hapu, the decline of the eels from the lake the high depleted recourse, is relevant to the cultural aspects of the people. The history of the lake is directly connected to the eels of the lake and the mana of chief of Te Wheao (Hawkes Bay Regional Council, 1988). In turn, from the Hawkes Bay Regional Council, from 2009, (HBRIC), study, that there are less juvenile eels lass than optimal eels in the lake. Habitat importance and

Effects of Exporation

956 words - 4 pages Exploration always has negative effects on those being explored. Two major periods of exploration were very close to each other and they involved the exploration of the Americas and Africa's. Consequences of exploration in the Americas included constant battles over gold, slavery, and entire populations being wiped out from foreign disease. The consequences of exploration in Africa included families and villages suffering loss due to slavery

Empathy in Brecht's The Good Person of Szechwan and Mother Courage and Her Children

2419 words - 10 pages Shen-Te is materialistic and again purposely anti-spiritual. It is obvious that this apparent intervention is neither miraculous nor successful otherwise everyone would live happily ever after and that would be the end of the play. I imagine that Brecht was possibly thinking of Buddhism, which unlike other ancient religions grew in the West and did not come through migration but by its appeal to the Western convert. There is an accepted belief

Thunnus Orientalis

674 words - 3 pages habitats are located from 0 to 600 feet below sea level, or even rarer, -1800 feet. Spawning occurs from April to August depending on spawning locations. Bluefin tunas spawn in Philippine sea and the Sea of Japan. Migrating to southern hemisphere and East Pacific Ocean after maturity they leave footprints in Australia, New Zealand, Gulf of Papua and French Polynesia. However, on their way to these destinations of migration from their far-removed

Ethnic Migrant Workers

1551 words - 6 pages workers. It seems to be true that external migration to both areas may exacerbate the economic exclusion of local ethnic populations through the competitive employment market (Zhu and Blachford, 2012). In the case of ethnic minority workers in the coastal cities, they are denied to access to equal opportunity of education, employment, housing, medical care, pension plan and so on. Besides so, there are many "migrant enclaves" in the cities. This

Similar Essays

In Search Of History: The First Americans How Latin American History Would Be Viewed Differently If More Was Known About The Origins Of American Paleo Indians

1776 words - 7 pages At the time of the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the 15th century, the Americas were populated with at least 50 million indigenous people. Understanding the origins of these first Americans will greatly alter the way in which Latin American history is viewed. Incorporating the timeline, technology, language, migration patterns, and ethnic origins of the nomadic ancestors of modern Native Americans provides the information needed to study

Final Project: Mitigation Strategies And Solutions

2015 words - 8 pages The Costs of Coastal DevelopmentAxia College of University of PhoenixIn the world today we suffer from many environmental issues, and many are directly brought on by the human race. The problem is that most of the issues are from unintentional actions; they are simply the result of the growth and expansion of our population. The population is always growing, and more recurrently people are moving to the coasts. Along with migration to the coast

Ivory Coast Essay

2163 words - 9 pages discuss the major developmental problems as well as suggestions for sustainable development. The topography of the Ivory Coast is split into three core areas. The coastal strip on the Gulf of Guinea makes up the countries' 515-kilometer southern border.Approximately 140,000 square kilometers of dense forests make up the southern interior of the country. About 180,000 square kilometers of dry savannas are located to the north, where economic

Does Europe's History Of Migration And Colonialism Oblige States To Open Their Borders To Migrants Today?

2526 words - 11 pages Barbarian invasions of tribes before our era to merchants and craftsmen relocating in the Middle Ages to practice their trades, population shifts had occured caused by wars. Vast masses of Europeans emigrated to colonies or later to the Americas. It is therefore a flawed assumption that European nation states are homogeneous entities, unaffected by external influences. Human migration is a natural and ongoing process that gradually and continuously