Cocaine can be traced back thousands of years, but its presence wasn’t widely known in North America until the late 1800’s and once it hit, there was an epidemic (Gootenberg 191-192). Cocaine was found to be highly addictive, forming a strong physiological and psychological dependence due to its direct effect on the brain’s central nervous system, specifically the reward pathway.
Cocaine comes from the leaves of two specific coca plants that are primarily grown in South America. The leaves contain the specific cocaine alkaloid that is needed to make cocaine hydrochloride (Rhodium). Alkaloids are a class of alkaline amines that are found in nature and amines are organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom bonded to one, two or three carbons (Suchocki 368). The process of going from a coca leaf to the cocaine hydrochloride (powdered cocaine) is done by converting the coca leaves to coca paste and the coca paste into cocaine base which is then moved into the hydrochloride stage (Rhodium). Each coca leaf contains roughly 1% of the desired cocaine (Claustre and Bresch-Rieu). The dried leaves are placed in a container and mixed with water, kerosene and an alkaline material such as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or sometimes baking soda. The solution made extracts cocaine alkaloids from the leaves (Rhodium). The kerosene, which is water immiscible, and the cocaine alkaloids become separated and the water and leaves are then discarded. The cocaine alkaloids are then extracted from the kerosene by using a sulfuric acid. The result is a putty like substance of cocaine sulfate or coca paste (“Cocaine”). It takes around 250 pounds of dried coca leaves to produce just 2.2 pounds of coca paste and out of the paste there contains 30 to 40% cocaine alkaloids (Rhodium).
After the paste is produced, it is sometimes dried and smoked which is more popular in South America. To get the paste to the next phase of a cocaine base, the paste is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid and water (“CIA Contra-Crack”). In this case the paste, which is the solute (the substance being dissolved) is dissolved in the solvent of hydrochloric acid and water (Suchocki). Potassium permanganate, which is a strong oxide, is then added to the solution. The potassium permanganate begins to break apart the chemicals separating the impure substances from the mixture (“CIA Contra-Crack”). It takes several hours for the oxidization to be completed, successfully removing the impurities from the solution. Ammonia and water is added to the solution and the process is repeated, filtering out the solutions impurities. What remains is then dried, resulting in a powder. The powder is cocaine base. (Rhodium)
The cocaine base is gathered and dissolved with ether or acetone. This again filters out impurities from the desired substance. Hydrochloric acid (one of the main chemicals in toilet bowl cleaner) is now added, this forms a reaction of crystallizing the cocaine and...