Cocoa Production In Ghana: A Mechanism For Biodiversity Conservation

1653 words - 7 pages

When it comes to intensive farming systems, many rural farmers face a trade-off between agricultural production and biodiversity . In order to protect the biodiversity, farmers must sacrifice agricultural production. Hence, the challenge is to continuously expand food production while bearing no negative effects on biodiversity. These negative effects widely include deforestation, disrupting ecosystem integrity and species viability. In light of these issues, better farming technologies and natural resource management practices along with improved agricultural policies are required. This brings up the question of how to protect wild species and conserve habitat while increasing agricultural production and farmer’s incomes? Thus, this research paper reviews the work on cocoa production in the West African sub region – specifically Ghana – as a biodiversity conservation mechanism and presents recommendations to research gaps related to agroforestry.
According to Richard Asare, “The West African sub region is host to the world’s main cocoa producing countries, including Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Cameroon and Nigeria” . Through progressive Conversion of forests into cocoa fields, these countries are undergoing major deforestation . Ghana in particular, underwent a substantial amount of biodiversity loss due to deforestation and land degradation, incurring an economic loss of approximately $54 billion . Further, Ghanaian forestlands are categorized into reserve and off reserve where an estimated 50 – 70% of the total reserve land was illegally encroached due to numerous factors such as agriculture, mining and timber extraction . In Ghana, 50% of total cocoa farm area is under mild shade while an average of 10% is managed under no shade . According to Schroth et al., cocoa agroforestry, where cocoa cultivation that maintains higher proportions of shade trees in a diverse structure, is progressively viewed as a sustainable land-use practice that aids in biodiversity conservation . Agroforests are “complex, multi-storey mixtures of planted trees, shrubs and food crops…” They are a sustainable and profitable form of agriculture to farmers and the overall economy. Cocoa agroforests in particular, can create forest-like habitats, harboring tropical biodiversity in degrading lands . It is claimed that to date, biological diversity in cocoa production has been poorly studied, especially in the context of ecoagriculture, which is referred to as “land-use systems managed for both agricultural production and wild biodiversity conservation” . Ecoagriculture can be considered the future of landscape management as it helps to preserve species and increase the productivity of the land while enabling the rural poor.
The cocoa sector in Ghana provides livelihoods for over 700,000 farmers in the country . Since 1990s, world cocoa prices have steadily increased (with the exception of 1998 – 2000 and 2003 – 2006) . Hence, the steady increase in...

Find Another Essay On Cocoa Production in Ghana: A Mechanism for Biodiversity Conservation

are referendums a sensible mechanism for making decisions in a representative democracy? - university of reading - essay

1572 words - 7 pages Are referendums a sensible mechanism for making decisions in a representative democracy? A referendum is a general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision . In contrast, a representative democracy is where citizens within a country elect representatives to make decisions on behalf of them in the form of mp’s as is the case in the UK. Although the UK occasionally incorporates

Evaluation of a Strategy for Increase in Car Production

1980 words - 8 pages Evaluation of a Strategy for Increase in Car Production The Morgan motor company is a small conservative company that is based in the north of England that is a producer of hand made, high quality cars. The purpose of the strategy is to identify the cause of the problem that is currently meaning that Morgan can only produce around nine cars per week. Despite this the company has much strength in the way that it operates

Examining Self Exile in Greek Mythology as a Defense Mechanism

1649 words - 7 pages the psyche, this balance can be upset and people may find themselves looking only inward and shutting out the rest of the world completely. This self-imposed exile from humanity is something that the ancient Greeks understood and often explored in their mythology. A common trend in Greek mythology was to use a self-imposed exile as a defense mechanism and form of punishment as seen in the myths of Oedipus Rex by Sophocles and Medea by Euripides

A Career in Film Production

545 words - 2 pages developed my own different ideals and likes. But, video just stuck with me. Even if film production doesn’t work out I have always had a childlike excitement for fighting fires. Being the person to save the day is something that everybody wants to do, but not everyone peruses this dangerous career. To be in a film production of any sort you are not required to have a college degree. It’s funny though because most people do go to college for these

Profiting on Conservation: Animals in Captivity Abused for Human Entertainment

1179 words - 5 pages Animals have been used in entertainment before Shamu became the headliner at Sea World. Ancient Romans threw innocent people and animals into a coliseum solely to entertain the spectators in the stands. People have been paying to see animals perform tricks for the past two thousand years. Marine animals are often captured or rescued from the wild under conservation terms, but trained by punishment instead of positive reinforcement to perform in

Opportunities for Biomass Production in Cambodia

529 words - 2 pages about 2500km2 of grassland with scattered trees area in Cambodia, a substantial proportion of which is abandoned lands and previously cleared forest. Tree plantations for biomass production therefore have the great potential for expansion, not only for rural electrification but also for main grid electricity supply (Abe, 2007). Recently, the government has introduced the Economic Land Concession scheme which allows both domestic and foreign

A Career in Film and Video Production

1234 words - 5 pages a few of us maintain this type of appreciation for art and for some of us, it diverse into something else. After 5th grade, I forgot how to draw; however, I become more interested in video editing. During my 7th grade years, I started practicing video editing using video game footage with the help of some online friends. A video website called Vimeo is used by many video editors of different region, ready to express their style of editing. I was

Urbanization & Habitat Loss in the Fraser Valley as a Threat to Biodiversity

2427 words - 10 pages humans, are “spawning habitat for 66% of the wild coho salmon in the Fraser River system” (Austin, et al. p. 43), and its preservation is critical for the species. As we have seen, increasing urbanization and the resulting habitat loss is considered to be the greatest threat to biodiversity (Fetene et al., p. 52). In Harding’s book Biodiversity in British Columbia, he quotes that “urban areas are synonymous with a loss of biodiversity (Murphy, 1988

A Machine Created for Mass Production and Interchangeable Parts

1609 words - 7 pages A Machine Created for Mass Production and Interchangeable Parts 1. Introduction: When you think of cars, chairs or furniture you probably think of cars being nice and chairs being sturdy and furniture being comfy. Do you ever really think about how it is made and the history behind it all? Well one, it’s made in a factory that has a huge machine. This machine creates products in large quantities in a short period of time. Back in the day

Discuss the role of History as a political mechanism for social control (reference to Brave New World and 1984

981 words - 4 pages History. Another role of History is reflected in Orwell's novel 1984.In the Novel 1984 by George Orwell, History plays an important role. Oceania, one of three states in the world, possesses a Ministry for Truth. The main character Winston Smith is working there. His job is to change History. History is daily altered in 1984. The Ministry of Truth is the propaganda arm in Oceania. This process of alteration, which has a benefiting impact on the

Wetlands in the United States and the Need for their Conservation

2344 words - 9 pages across the country (Disilvestro, 181).Many states have lost a high percentage of their wetlands due to government projects. For example, Mississippi has lost most of its wetlands to do drainage by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Most of these projects involve such draining in order to gain more land for agricultural production. However, private companies are responsible for a lot of the damage too. Oil companies have damaged many acres of

Similar Essays

Ghana: A Study In Economy Essay

4348 words - 17 pages /GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=1398316. Economic Statistics.Ghana is well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has twice the per capital output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major source of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 40% of GDP

Effects Of Human Capital On Maize Production In Ghana

2460 words - 10 pages for access to credit; farmsize is the log of land area (acres) used for maize production; irr is a dummy for access to irrigation, and reg is dummies for 2 out of the 3 ecological zones in Ghana with the forest zone left out to serve as a base category for comparison. Adopting a simple Cobb–Douglas form for the production function, I estimated equation (1) using a quantile regression technique (Koenker and Bassett, 1998). Specifically, given a

A Movement For Wildlife Conservation Essay

1378 words - 6 pages A Movement for Wildlife Conservation The Florida panther, Cape Sable seaside sparrow, and Kemp's ridley sea turtle are classified in different vertebrate categories, but they all have something in common; they are on the endangered list. These animals' lives, as well as hundreds of other species' lives, are in danger as their survivial and reproduction rates decline. Animals are becoming endangered primarily because of the effects

Kinship As A Mechanism For Social Integrating

951 words - 4 pages Kinship as a Mechanism for Social Integrating It is often demonstrated in many anthropological studies that kinship acts as an important means for social integrating in a given society. But is it a fair generalization to say that kinship always functions as a mechanism for social integration? Kinship refers to the relationships established through marriage or descent groups that has been proven in some societies to lead to social