This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Cognitive Maps In Rats And Men

1456 words - 6 pages

Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men

Edward Chance Tolman made many significant findings to the studies of learning , memory and motivation. By today's standards he would be considered a behaviorist. “He is best remembered for being a pioneer in cognitive psychology during a time when behaviorists dominated the field. Tolman made several significant contributions to the field of psychology. At Berkeley University he created a cognitive theory of learning, which became his trademark to the field. He thought of learning as developing from bits of knowledge and cognition about the environment and how the organism relates to it “(Kimble et al, 1991).
Tolman's experiment questions whether complex internal cognitive activity occurs in an organism, whether these mental processes could be studied without observing them directly. He hypothesized that because humans live in an environment full of obstacles,tools and paths, he theorize that humans must be using those things in a purposive way. He used rats in his experimentation because he believed that rats have a type of stimulus response system akin to humans. to explain that organisms are capable of creating useful cognitive maps. His aim was to observe the complexity of those cognitive maps, and to indicate the significance of these findings on rats for the behavior of humans. Tolman's version of behaviorism emphasized the relationships between stimuli and the organism rather than stimulus-response. Instead of an SR (Stimulus-Response) theory, Tolman pioneered the SOR (Stimulus-Organism-Response) theory. This theory states that a behavior is initiated by things from within the organism's environment
According to Tolman, a new stimulus or sign becomes associated with already meaningful stimuli. New stimuli becomes significant through a series of pairings; essentially saying that there is no need for reinforcement in order to facilitate learning. In his studies of rats, Tolman aimed to demonstrate that animals could learn facts about the world that they could subsequently use in a flexible manner, rather than simply learning automatic responses that were triggered off by environmental stimuli.
According to Tolman cognitive maps are tools we use to construct and store spatial knowledge, they allow the mind to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, and enhance recall and learning of information. It is this map that indicates paths and environmental relationships, which inevitably determines what responses the organism will make .Tolman noted that learning involves the learner's creation of cognitive maps or internal schemas, that are not specifically, directly or instantly tied to performance. This means that new concepts are learned but not necessarily put into action immediately. This is the basic principle of latent learning , a theory which leads Tolman away from behaviorism and toward cognitive behaviorism. Cognitive behaviorism states that there is a purpose for all of...

Find Another Essay On Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men

Essay on Betrayal: 'Rats in the Ranks' 'Maestro', 'Anthony and Cleopatra', 'Gladiator'

1052 words - 4 pages understanding of the effects of betrayal showing the hurtful effects it had on Commodus.'Rats in the Ranks' is a letter to the editor, written by Jim George and published in The Sydney Morning Herald on August 23. Mr George expresses his opinion about the leaders of our society betraying the community by being corrupt and dishonest. To present this issue the letter contains many language techniques to get the reader thinking about the topic.The Democrats

Attenuation of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and hepatic oxidative stress by resveratrol in fructose-fed rats

592 words - 3 pages SIRT-1 and SIRT-2 could be useful to attenuate diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting NFkB activity. In the present study, we have administered resveratrol a well-known activator of SIRT-1 to fructose fed diabetic rats for 8 weeks to demonstrate if resveratrol can reduce NFkB activation and ameliorate cardiac oxidative stress through deacetylation of NFkB.

Behavior and Cognitive Intervention Programs in America

1324 words - 5 pages possible closure. The staff only interests are operating the current interventions for the clients of the women’s house. The staff will prepare for future ideas and interventions. Other Models and Theories In the study of behavior and cognitive therapy there are numerous models. The staff of TCC believes mental health and drug addictions services are cut and dry. The clients suffer from mental illnesses, which may have come about from some

Physical Exercise and Cognitive Functioning in Children

2033 words - 9 pages The purpose of this study is to look at if physical exercise will help the healthy cognitive development in children and adolescence and this paper will illustrate that the same facts are true for children and adolescence, and will stress the importance of exercise for children optimal brain development and growth. The current studies show that physical activity has a positive effect on attention, neuroplasticity and intellectual development in

Learning and Cognitive Perspectives in Psychology

1423 words - 6 pages reflect different questions psychologist may have about human behavior and how the human mind works. It can also describe different ways of explaining why people act, behave, and do what they do. Two of the most known perspectives in psychology are the learning and the cognitive perspectives. The learning perspective is a psychological approach that reflects how the environment and how experience affects a person’s or animal’s actions. It emphasizes

Cognitive structures and processes involved in learning

1529 words - 6 pages Cognitive psychology is a field of psychology which studies how the human mind perceives, thinks and how memory is stored. This essay will use the Modal Model to illustrate the cognitive structures and processes involved in the process of learning. It will lay emphasis on short-term-memory and automation.The modal model is an information processing model that attempts to elucidate the memory process. This model divides the memory process into

Cognitive and Emotional Persuasion in Advertisement

1755 words - 7 pages impacts they have on decision making. In order to better understand the consequences of advertising, individuals must understand the basic components of how the brain processes information and draws conclusions. For this we will focus on a cognitive approach to persuasion and an emotional approach to persuasion. I have selected four different advertisements to look at; one commercial and one written ad that takes a cognitive approach, and one

Learning and Cognitive Development in Teens

1793 words - 7 pages During middle childhood, children are able to excel in many aspects of development that they could not have obtained before. Children starting around age seven are able to excel in their learning and cognitive development, like being able to read and enjoy going to school to learn something new. They enjoy being able to practice their new knowledge by practicing it until they get it perfect. By this age, middle school age children are able to

Emotion-Induced Amnesia in Rats: Working Memory Specific Impairment, Corticosterone-Memory Correlation, and Fear Versus Arousal Effects on Memory

1073 words - 4 pages Have you ever gone to see a really scary movie only to come out and forget where you parked you car? Did you stop to think about why you forgot? What was going on in your brain to make you forget? Well in the experiment you are about to learn, the psychologists attempted to do just that, only their subjects were rats. Previous experiments have shown that stress impairs memory, more specifically, spatial memory. This experiment builds on that

Men and Women in Music

2838 words - 11 pages women: essentialism and social constructionism. There are three aspects of essentialism which includes brain studies, sociobiology and others. Brain studies suggest that our cognitive patterns are “hardwired” into our brain. Men are dominant in areas like math, art, music and visual-spatial activities because they rely more on the right hemisphere of their brain. Women are better at communicating, being more emotional and intuitive because they

Women and Men in Leadership

1618 words - 6 pages A lot of attention has been paid to our increasingly diverse workplace. There are multiple differences including race, gender, generations, and thinking styles. Many historical events have occurred that have cleared the way to analyze these differences of men and women in the workplace. These gender differences are likely to exist in the way men and women influence, communicate, and lead. The male and female gender has always been viewed as two

Similar Essays

Cognitive Maps In Rats And Men

1497 words - 6 pages Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men Edward Chance Tolman made many significant findings to the studies of learning, memory and motivation. Today Tolman would be considered a Cognitive Behaviorist, he developed his own brand of behaviorism which emphasized the purposeful nature behind an organism's actions, taking into account it's goals and motivations. “He is best remembered for being a pioneer in cognitive psychology during a time when

Traps And Poisons For Eradicating Rats In The Home

652 words - 3 pages Domesticated brown rats, also known as fancy rats, make wonderful pets. These types of rats are referred to as “the low maintenance pets”. However, wild brown rats that run loose all over your house are anything but cute and wonderful—truth be told, these rats are very destructive. Wild brown rats may introduce disease-carrying parasites such as ticks and fleas into your home. In addition to leaving urine and foul droppings everywhere, which

Pharmacokinetic And Pharmacodynamic Interaction Of Aqueous Extract Of Cassia Auriculata L. Leaves And Metformin In Rats

1865 words - 7 pages , flavanoids, polysaccrides, saponins, tannins and steroids (Singh et al., 1980; Yen et al., 1998; Ayo et al., 2004), flavanoids, sterols/terpenoids and phenolic acids are known to be antidiabetic bioactive principles. Flavanoids are known to regenerate the damaged β cells in alloxan induced diabetic rats (Yasir M et al., 2012). Diabetes mellitus, caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin or its function, lead to number of complications

The Effects Of Social Interaction And Odor Exposure On Food Preferences In Sprague Dawley Rats

2971 words - 12 pages Rat’s habitats are diverse; as a result rats have become adept omnivores. Due to the diversity of the environments and the subsequent diversity of potential foods and poisons in such environments, rats must be selective and cautious of which foods to consume. In addition, rats cannot expel ingested poisons by vomiting, due to anatomical restrictions. Therefore it is imperative that rats develop social and behavioral adaptations in order to