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Cold War Essay

1022 words - 4 pages

MARKSCHEMES ON COLD WAR ESSAY TOPICSHow and to what extent did the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam (1945), contribute to the origin of the Cold War? (2003)This question has three demands, actual disagreements at the conferences, problems that arose out of decisions taken there, and a judgment on "to what extent". In the latter part, candidates could also record briefly other causes of the Cold War.Yalta, attended by Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin took place 4 to 11 February 1945. It was both the high watermark of the wartime coalition and the beginning of serious disagreements, over the composition of the United Nations, the shape and government of Poland, the division of Germany, and reparations. The cracks were largely papered over, but disagreements re-emerged later. Potsdam took place 16 July to 2 August 1945. Stalin and Truman attended throughout, but Churchill withdrew and Attlee (who was there) took his place. The US possession of the atom bomb was announced, and unsatisfactory decisions on Germany - boundaries and reparations, Polish frontiers, and Soviet participation against Japan were concluded. Again they caused disagreements later.[7 marks] and under for short general causes essays, or for those who deny the importance of the conferences without discussing them. [8 to 10 marks] for narratives of Yalta and Potsdam with implicit assessment of their part in the origin of the Cold War. [11 to 13 marks] for answers that consider how the conferences caused disagreements between the powers, then and later. [14 to 16 marks] for focus on the conferences' part in the origin of the Cold War. [17+ marks] for understanding of the conferences' importance in the origin of the Cold War, and a verdict on "to what extent"."Ideological differences played little part in the origin of the Cold War." How far do you agree with this judgement? (2009)A familiar theme! Ideological differences suggests communism versus democracy and a planned economy versus a free market economy. Candidates should discuss these differences in their historical context, 1917 to say 1942; an assessment of the wartime alliance in face of Hitler and Nazi aggression would also be relevant as well as disagreements within the alliance, 1942 to 1945 and the post-war situation which led to the Cold War, with focus and structure on fear by USSR of another invasion from the West and by the United States and the Western powers of the USSR under Stalin seeking the spread of communism. Answers which consist of all the candidate knows about the Cold War will probably not reach [8 marks]. A narrative of differences 1917 to say 1947, with comments or assessment, will probably score [8 to 10 marks] or [11 to 13 marks] depending on how well it is focused on the set question. Essays worth [14 to 16 marks] and higher will probably be structured, analytical and some will discuss the various interpretations of the origins of the Cold War, by historians."An unnatural alliance that was bound to fall...

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