Collective Goods Essay

1577 words - 6 pages

The international community is made up of many state actors that contribute in some form or other to establish a world that can establish key public goods. When more than one nation is trying to come together to achieve their collective goods, the nation may be confronted with a number of issues. There are times when the countries may need to come together to make decisions in specific topics like global warming, ozone depletion, space exploration amongst many other issues that require group attention (Stiles p269). A collective good does not belong to one specific player, cannot be withheld from a player and can be used by all players. When referring to collective goods there must be an investment or expenses may be accrued in the good by the player(s). The decision that must be made is which player will be making the investment and this is agreed to by negotiation.
One of the many influences of the creation of collective goods is the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol focuses on many issues that cross national boundaries and require the attention of more than one country at a time. This leads to an international affairs situation where various countries have to solve problems of a trans-boundary nature (Stiles p.268). In order for this to occur the countries must first acknowledge that there is a need for a collective good. The problem arises however when countries use their judgment to determine how and if they should contribute to the collective good. Some countries may suggest that the country that has caused the most damage should be responsible party and should contribute more money (Stiles p269). It is rarely the case when all the countries involved offer to contribute their share without any hesitation. It is very difficult for the decision of who is going to take the most responsibility financially and steps up to solve it solely. The creation of a collective good would be better maintained if it only involved a single player who would pay the expenses. This single player is referred to as the “hegemon”. The “hegemon” plays a very important role in the creation of a collective good (Stiles p281). In addition, if a major player refuses to go along with the agreement and the collective good is now jeopardized this player is referred to as the “spoiler” (Stiles p269). It is very common for there to be unfair practice when it comes to these issues since some players may draw out and the others may have to carry its burden. There should be penalties assigned to those that do not comply or decide to revert so they can have better accountability of the actions of those involved. Some players may choose to request special requirements placed upon them for example during Clinton’s Presidency he was attempting to create a way that the protocol gave the United States separate rules from other countries (Stiles p268). This would be a loss to other countries giving the United States more power and making exceptions for them...

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