Color Vision Deficiency is the inability to see and differentiate colors correctly. It is more commonly referred to as color blindness. The scientific name is derived from the deficiency or incapability to see color. There are many types of this eye disease. They include Monochromacy, Dichromacy, and Anomalour Trichromacy. Monochromacy is when a person cannot see any color. They see color as variations of grey. A patient with Dichromacy has only two cones, the part of the eye in the retina that interprets color in blue, red and green. With only two cones, the patient has a limited color spectrum. Anomalour Trichromacy is when one cone is unable to work properly, thus altering the understanding of color. For all these different types, there are a myriad of symptoms.
The most common symptom is the abnormal understanding of colors and their brightness. A person would be unable to differentiate between shades of the same color, thus incorrectly labeling them. With color blindness it would also be hard to identify reds and greens, because those colors are part of the two main cone pigments that help in seeing color. When one sense, seeing, is damaged, the others senses compensate for that lost by being strengthened; thus a colorblind person may have an excellent sense of smell. Another symptom is Achromatopsia, in which the cones do not function correctly so the person sees in shades of black and white.
A person with this condition had no understanding of color. With Achromatopsia, a patient may develop Nystagmus, which is when the eyes rapidly move side to side. This symptom appears as a result of vision loss. A milder version of Achromatopsia is Incomplete Achromatopsia, where the individual can understand color to a slight degree because they have some functioning cones in the retina. The most severe manifestation of color blindness is the inability to see.
Causes of the disease are primarily due to genetics. A baby inherits Color Vision Deficiency at birth and it stays with them for life. The newborn will not have one of the three types of cones, red, green or blue, which are used for color vision. Due to this deficiency among the cones, the rods cannot interpret light correctly. The wrong colors or shades may be seen. Other causes may happen over time. An example of this is age. People’s bodies over 60 years of age change physically, which can affects a person’s ability to see particular colors. Certain medications that treat high blood pressure and nervous disorders can cause color blindness. An injury or accident like a stroke can damage the retina, thus injuring the cones and creating an inability to see colors accurately. Also, chronic illnesses like Alzheimer’s disease can lead to acquired color blindness. When Color Vision Deficiency is acquired, the function and performance of the cones are affected thus working...