This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Combining The Influenza Virus With Another Bacteria

629 words - 3 pages

The scientific journal, “Kinetics of coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae,” discusses the influences of combining the influenza virus with another bacteria, S. pneumonia[1]. According to the journal, influenza can be transformed from a slight infection into a fierce or fatal virus when S. pneumoniae is incorporated into the environment near the virus. Some aspects of both influenza and S. pneumoniae infecting an organism consist of inflammation and airway impairment. The similarities between the two viruses could be because both influenza and pneumococcus make use of identical pathways, cofactors and intermediates. The influenza virus works by diminishing the immune systems responses to a virus, and pneumococcus bacteria is better able to enter a cell when the immune system is not functioning properly. Exactly how this takes place is currently unknown, but the study conducted aids in further ...view middle of the document...

The mathematical model used to measure the cell activity was a target cell limited model with an eclipse phase for the influenza virus, and the S. pneumoniae infection was studied using a model of the first connection with the bacteria and the alveolar macrophages. The final model was derived from mechanisms of interaction between the two infections.
Previous research showed viral titers strengthened after addition of the bacteria and then gradually declined, but the bacterial titers were recorded to quickly rise and stay at high levels. The PR8 and PR8-PBI-F2(1918) strains of the influenza virus showed a viral titer increase of 3 with the PR8 virus and a 2.5 increase for PR8-PB1-F2(1918) when bacteria was added. The kinetic study showed an increase in adherence to cell tissue, virus production, and bacterial carrying capacity. They also showed a decrease in phagocytosis and immune responses.
The hypothesis stated that with the addition of bacteria, viral titers would rebound because infected cells were more likely to activate viral release. The cause of bacterial titers was suspected to be due to alveolar macrophage impairment. Alveolar macrophages keep the lungs clean by transporting both feasible and nonviable particles out of the cells located in the lungs, and these particles enter through the air that you breathe[2].
The results showed that the bacterial titers did seem to be involved with alveolar macrophage impairment, but viral titers did not significantly seem to prompt more viral release from infected cells. The increase of viral titers in both viral infections could be evidence of an intense viral inflation, but it was concluded that further research using the journal results would need to be done. The increase could just be initial interaction the bacteria have with the virus. Phagocytosis levels may be irrelevant to the study because when a large amount of S. pneumoniae was added, no matter how many bacteria were removed, there was still a large amount of bacteria growing in the cell. The change in the amount of pneumonococcus added and strain of the bacteria and virus seemed to influence how mild or fatal the coinfection became.

Find Another Essay On Combining The Influenza Virus with Another Bacteria

How should states who are all facing the same security dilemma interact with one another?

2943 words - 12 pages dilemma interact with one another? The various theoretical answers to this question form to two fundamentally opposed conclusions; nations will either seek to expand their individual power to facilitate their own security, or will construct an international union to ensure mutual defense. While the latter promotes an international community based upon cooperation, the former predicts perpetual conflict. In order to perform an analysis of these

The Ethics for Engineers in Combining Humans with Advanced Robotics

2010 words - 9 pages potentially redefine human properties; undoubtedly, the ethical concerns will be profoundly important to the direction of the human species. Should we allow Human Enhancement? Should we make thinking machines? Will merging with machines, make humans perfect? Human enhancement and machine intelligence are the big topic questions that are presently being discussed by communities worldwide. These are the problems of the future and the engineering community

This is a film analysis of the movie "The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou" It is another quirkfest from Wes Anderson (Rushmore, Bottle Rocket, The Royal Tannenbaums)

611 words - 2 pages Another quirkfest from Wes Anderson (Rushmore, Bottle Rocket, The Royal Tannenbaums), this film has some of the most imaginatively charming images on screen this year, especially a tiny rainbow-striped seahorse and a cutaway side view of a ship that is as delightfully cluttered as a dollhouse conceived by Joseph Cornell. And it has Anderson's trademark oddball characters from a mix of cultures, all speaking in his trademark corkscrew speech and

This paper deals with the evil between the characters in East of Eden as well as how they affect one another

2058 words - 8 pages East of Eden is an in-depth look at different people who are all related to one another and the effect they have on each other. Written by John Steinbeck, this book deals with good vs. evil in Salinas Valley during the early 1900's. It also displays the amount of evil that is in one family and how it grows among people. Caleb and Cathy are the main characters with evil boiling inside of them. Cathy, the most evil character, leads a different

Working with Dad: a story of a father and son working together and learning from one another and from the disadvantaged people

2340 words - 9 pages time Dad looks up and says with a grand smile, "Are we ready?" With a groan and a stretch, I stand. We get into the cab of my dad's white Dodge Ram Sport that I love, and leave Bucks "Habah," spelled harbor but pronounced without R's. We turn on the country music, and ride.Ryan and I sing for 45 minutes until we arrive at the shop. I'm always excited when I see the 18-wheeler parked in the side of the lot. I really do enjoy working with Dad. By

Compare and contrast the work done by one agency/ organisation or worker with that done by another

555 words - 2 pages Youth WorkerThe day-to-day activities that a youth worker carries out are:A youth worker works closely with young people gaining their trust and by doing this they develop a friendship. The youth worker will then try to encourage and guide the young people to help them understand what they are doing and where they are/can go. A youth worker will do this by communicating in a certain lingo that is identifiable by youth culture. He/she will use

Critical Analysis of "The World is Too much with Us." i.e. the sonnet written by William Wordsworth.My interpretation of the poem in comparison to the interpretation of another student

1086 words - 4 pages "The world is too much with us is a statement about conflict between nature and humanity." I agree with this statement to a large extent because that is exactly the main premise of the poem written by William Wordsworth. The conflict in essence, is the one where the human race no longer appreciates nature and instead exploits it for their own material gain. However, the third sentence within the passage is only half correct. I say this because


1152 words - 5 pages Influenza, also known as “the flu,” is a virus that infects the respiratory tract. Although Influenza is not as severe as many viral infections it's almost the worst for viral infections of the respiratory tract. Typically, when someone is infected with influenza they experience fever (usually 100° to 103°F in adults, but even higher in children) and causes a cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, and also headaches, muscle aches, and


1093 words - 4 pages Influenza, also known as "the flu," is a virus that infects the respiratory tract. Although Influenza is not as severe as many viral infections it's almost the worst for viral infections of the respiratory tract. Typically, when someone is infected with influenza they experience fever (usually 100° to 103°F in adults, but even higher in children) and causes a cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, and also headaches, muscle aches, and

Avian Influenza: Type A Virus Infection in Humans

3978 words - 16 pages (HPAI) with a mortality rate of 90% to 100%1. Avian H2, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9 and H10 are the subtypes that are the most likely to be transferred to humans. The subtypes of the avian influenza type A virus that routinely cause human influenza are H3N2, H2N2, H1N1 and H1N2. H1N1 was the virus that caused the Spanish influenza pandemic in 1918 that killed 20 million people as well as the Russian pandemic of 1977 which was less lethal1. Currently

Evolving Influenza

1136 words - 5 pages as Influenza A, B, C. Influenza A is carried mostly by wild aquatic birds (Influenza). Influenza B usually only infects humans, and Influenza C infects pigs, dogs, and humans (Influenza). Influenza A is the most common category that crosses over. This means it moves from one species to another species. A few people contract the virus from the source animals, and then it is spread from human to human. If humans can contract Influenza from

Similar Essays

The Influenza Virus Essay

607 words - 2 pages Summary Most viruses are miniscule, The influenza virus measures about 100 nanometers across, and has just 13 genes.In the past decade larger viruses have been found. French researchers recently discovered a giant virus which has a volume larger than the flu virus by a thousand-fold, and contains 2,556 genes. Interestingly the genes found only match 6% of the known genes on earth. Viruses were discovered on tobacco plants in the 1800s by

The Potential For Avian Influenza To Cause Another Worldwide Pandemic

1690 words - 7 pages The Potential for Avian Influenza to Cause Another Worldwide Pandemic Abstract There are three major factors involved in the start of a pandemic; the viral strain must be new, able to cause serious illness, and transmit efficiently between humans. This article explores the avian influenza virus?s potential to cause another global pandemic through its ease of transmission and ability to evade treatment. Avian type A influenza virus generally

Bioremediation With The Use Of Bacteria, Serratia Marcescens

1262 words - 6 pages functions that the microbes already carry out in the soil. Along with being easier, it can be much less expensive because the soil does not have to be pumped out of the ground for treatment (Environmental Inquiry-Bioremediation). Serratia Marcescens is a bacterium that is commonly used for bioremediation. The bacterium, Serratia marcescens, was first discovered by Bartholomeo Bizio in Padua, Italy in 1819. The bacteria are rod-shaped, motile, and short

Description Of The Nile Virus With A Twist

1299 words - 5 pages Mr. Nile VirusDo you know who Mr. Nile Virus is? You don't? Well, listen, err, read very carefully. He is your unfriendly neighborhood mosquito who makes people sick. Make people sick? Yes, because he is carrying a virus, a very tiny particle which is about a thousand times smaller than a bacteria (Freudenrich, n.d.). Be sure to avoid him because if he comes near you and gets the chance to bite you, you can be potentially ill. You may develop