By 879 AD, Guthrum's remaining army left Wessex, some following him to his Kingdom and some leaving to life a more settled life in Northumbria in York. Some assembled on the Thames to form a new army to return to the European continent to begin new campaigns and take advantage of the political turmoil in Francia with the death of King Charles the Bald (Charles II) in 877 AD.
Although with the treaty in place between King Alfred of Wessex and King Guthrum of the Danelaw, Alfred was saved any major conflicts but still had to deal with the occasional Viking raid here and there upon his kingdom. Alfred had reorganized his army, rebuilt and built new defenses around the countryside and a navy. ...view middle of the document...
Eventually he was able to pay them a sum of 700 pounds of silver to leave Paris and allowed them to sail further up the River Seine to pillage Burgundy, which was in revolt at the time.
In 911 AD, the Viking leader Rollo fell foul to the Norwegian King Harald Fairhair and returned to the River Seine with his followers and invaded the area of northern France again. He launched an attack on Paris before laying siege to Chartres. On July 20th 911 AD, Frankish forces were to repel the Viking attack led by Rollo at the Battle of Chartres. Then on August 26th, 911 AD, after another Frankish victory near Chartres against Rollo's forces, Charles the Simple, now King of Western Francia and of Lotharingia felt Rollo and his army of Norsemen would be worthy allies instead of adversaries and negotiated the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte.
In this Treaty, King Charles the Simple in exchange for the Viking's loyalty and pledge of feudal allegiance, gave the city of Rouen and the area of what is present-day Upper Normandy to Rollo and his men in what established the Duchy of Normandy, named from the Frankish word for the Viking Men of the North, or Northmen - Normanii. This was the land between the River Epte and the sea, as well as Brittany, which was an independent country that the Franks had failed to conquer. Additionally, Rollo and his Northmen were to defend the shores of the River Seine.
As a token of goodwill, Rollo also agreed to be baptized Christian as Robert I and to marry King Charles' daughter, Gisela. Legend states that when Rollo was required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as was custom to the condition of the treaty. Rollo refused to perform such a humiliation, in such that when Charles extended his foot to him, he ordered one of his warriors to do so in his place. When his warrior lifted King Charles' foot up to his mouth, it caused the king to lose his balance and fall to the ground.
In accordance to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Rollo honored his word and defended the shores of the River Seine. However, Rollo continued to make attacks on Flanders (Modern day Northern Belgium).
Alfred the Great had died in 899 AD and was succeeded by his son, Edward the Elder. He, along with his sister, Æthelflæd, the Lady of the Mercians, conquered several Danish territories in the Midlands and East Anglia in a series of campaigns during the 917 AD. The Danish Jarls who submitted were allowed to keep their lands. Upon the death of his sister in 918 AD, Edward the Elder also became King of Mercia. At this time, the balance of power in England was shifting out of the hands of the Viking conquerors controlling the Danelaw and into the hands of the Anglo-Saxon King. The Kingdom of Northumbria continued to be ruled by Norsemen.
In France, King Charles the Simple was deposed by Robert I in 922 AD, Rollo considered his oath to the King of France to now be voided and began a period of expansion westwards. In an attempt to stop Rollo's...