Communication New Essay

1055 words - 4 pages

CommunicationEarly humans had no written language so we are not really sure how they talked to each other. They may have used signs, or imitated made by animals and birds. These simple sounds may have been the beginnings of language.Written RecordsFrom the earliest times, people needed to keep records. About 5,000 years ago, when ancient people wanted to write something down, they drew a simple picture.Cuneiform WritingThe Sumerians made wedge-shaped marks in a tablet of soft clay. This was later baked in the Sun.HieroglyphicsPriests in ancient Egypt drew simple pictures to represent words. They wrote on papyrus, a paper made from flattened reeds that grew on the banks of the Nile.AlphabetsLater on, letters and symbols instead of pictures were used for each different sound in a word. All these different letters made up an alphabet.Books and PrintingAs early as the 7th century, the Chinese carved word pictures onto blocks of wood. They spread ink on the raised parts, pressed paper on top, peeled it off and made a print.Later they cut all their words on separate small blocks so they could move them round to make different sentences. This is called moveable type.Until the 15th century most books were hand written, then copied by monks or scribes. They were very rare and expensive, but in those days very few people could read write. Then in 1450 Johannes Gutenberg set up the first printing press in Germany. It was made from an old wine press, and it used moveable metal type. The first book that he printed was the Bible. Now books could be made quickly, and this spread new ideas and learning. Gutenberg's method of printing was called 'letterpress'. He could print 300 sheets a day by hand. Modern printers use a system called 'offset lithography'. Huge machines much bigger then a house can print millions of colour pages a day.Sending messagesBefore the invention of the telephone people had many ways of sending messages: beacon fires, smoke signals, beating drums.TelephoneWhen Alexander Graham Bell invented a very simple telephone in 1876 he could not have imagined its importance. Today, millions of phoneCalls are made everyday around the world. When you speak into a phone the sound of your voice is changed in to an electrical signal. This signal travels down a wire and is changed back into a voice sound by the phone at other end. Long distance calls to other countries travel through undersea cables or are bounced off satellites.Cordless phoneThis phone is like the normal one except the parts are not joined by a cord. The 'base' unit is plugged into a wall socket and receives the call, which it sends on to the handset up to 100 metres away.Portable phoneThese are radiophones that can be taken almost anywhere. Your phone call travels by radio waves to a nearby transmitter, then through the phone wires to a central computer that passes it on to the person you are calling.Answering machinesThis is like a tape recorder fitted to your telephone. If you are...

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