Communication Technologies For Implantable Sensors Essay

1346 words - 5 pages

1. Introduction

Nowadays, digital electronic devices have been used to make a lot of things easier and better. Personal computers have been successful to help people in their works and to provide entertainment, thus it is not surprising if now people are thinking to make the electronic systems to be incorporated further into medical field, so that its service can be cheaper, easier to be accessed, and better in quality.

Some patients with chronic illness sometimes need to be monitored closely by medical team. By having the patients attached with suitable sensors which can transmit data over the network, it is possible for the patients to have long-term monitoring without the need for a long and expensive stay in hospital.

For long term and long distance monitoring, implantable sensors are desirable. Implantable sensors are inserted into human body so that it does not disturb the patients’ activities. Of course, the implanted devices should be able to communicate to the outside world without using wire because “wires passing through the skin are a source of infection, can result in injury (if pulled or knocked), and are often uncomfortable for the patient” [1]. Beside the purpose of monitoring, implantable devices can also be used for more complex prescription applications, such as implantable drug delivery system, implantable insulin pump, and so on.

Figure 1.1 Wireless Body Area Network

The network for medical application around the patient’s body is termed as Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), which can be seen in Figure 1.1. A WBAN consists of sensors (implanted or wearable) and a gateway node. The gateway node in the figure is called Personnel Control Unit (PCU), although other terminologies such as Body Control Unit (BCU) or Central Control Unit (CCU) may be used as well. The function of this gateway node is to collect data from the sensors and forward the data to the medical team through a range of communication networks, such as Wifi and Bluetooth, as well as to act as superior processor for tasks that implantable devices could not handle [1]. This essay will discuss the communication technologies that can be used for the sensors to communicate to this gateway node.
2. Selecting Communication Technologies for Implantable Sensors

As mentioned earlier, communication of sensors to the outside world should be done wirelessly. For medical application, the data transfer system should have low power usage to avoid heating tissue, low bit-error-rate for reliable data transfer, and small in size and light in weight [1].

In this section, several types of wireless technologies for the implantable sensors communication are explored. Table 1 shows several popular wireless technologies used for medical applications compiled by Texas Instruments/Arrow NAC [2], but not all of those listed in the table are actually really suitable for implantable sensors application.


Table 2.1 Existing wireless technology standards. Table taken from [2]
...

Find Another Essay On Communication Technologies for Implantable Sensors

A High-Voltage Compliant Microelectrode Array Driver for Neuro Prosthesis: Effects of Process Variation

1727 words - 7 pages 1. INTRODUCTION The loss of physiological functions can be restored partially or completely using functional electrical stimulation and this mechanism has been used in a number of biomedical devices such as the mo- tor nerves stimulator [1], pacemaker, urinary implant [2], and cochlear implant [3]. The advance in microelectronic technologies is allowing the researchers to engineer highly miniaturized implantable integrated microsystems [4]. Some

Sudden Cardiac Death - Engineering Solutions

831 words - 3 pages and E. Hoyo-Barbolla, “A new solution for a heart failure monitoring system based on wearable and information technologies,” in Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, 2006. BSN 2006. International Workshop on, 2006, pp. 4 pp.-153. [3] Zhanpeng Jin, Yuwen Sun and A. C. Cheng, "Predicting cardiovascular disease from real-time electrocardiographic monitoring: An adaptive machine learning approach on a cell phone," in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009. EMBC 2009. Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2009, pp. 6889-6892.

Applications of Smart Dust

4045 words - 16 pages station transceiver, or peer-to-peer communication can be performed between dust motes. The applications of smart dust are numerous for industry as well as the military. Smart Dust components and requirements Smart Dust requires both evolutionary and revolutionary advances. Designers can use microelectromechanical systems to build small sensors, optical communication components, and power supplies, whereas microelectronics provides

gps system

603 words - 3 pages There have been numerous advancements in construction surveying equipment and technologies over the past several decades, but probably none more impactful to the construction industry than the Global Positioning Satellite system or GPS. Prior to today's GPS survey technology, the survey team relied on complex field calculations and measurements to determine grade, set the centerline and offset stakes. Continual field surveys and calculation

Sensors Allocation Fault

1808 words - 7 pages transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna micro-controller, electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors, energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting. Drawback of using sensors is having limited power to consume, a memory that is capable of performing limited computations, in addition to probability of communication failures between nodes. Motivation Sensor-based networks

Implantable Digital Device For Tissue Stimulation

10264 words - 41 pages 1. An implantable digital stimulation system for atrial fibrillation treatment by electrical stimulation of a vagal nerve in a patient, the implantable digital stimulation system comprising: a plurality of electrodes at one or more intravascular locations in proximity to a vagal nerve inside the patient; and an implantable stimulator comprising: (a) a control unit for controlling the electrical stimulation by programmable selection of at least

Remote Oil Well Monitoring: Oil Pumping Units Analysis

1509 words - 6 pages difficulties in locating and repairing in reasonable time resulting in oil production drop. A sensor network based intelligent control system is proposed, and applied for remote oil-well health monitoring and power economy. The proposed sensor network consists of basic sensors such as Temperature sensor, Gas sensor and level sensor that are used for oil well data sensing. The sensed data is given to the controller inbuilt with CAN module for processing

RFID: We Can But Should We?

899 words - 4 pages patients to consider this option; since the cons (negative) outweigh the pros (positive). References Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility. (2012). Technologies: RFID / What is RFID? . Retrieved March 19, 2012, from Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility: http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/RFID/what_is_rfid.asp Foster, K., & Jaeger, J. (2008). Ethical implications of implantable radiofrequency

NVE Corporation Analysis

903 words - 4 pages company develops and sells products that utilize “spintronics”, a nanotechnology which relies on electron spin rather than electron charge to gather, store and send information. NVE Corp. manufactures high performance sensors and couplers that are used to acquire and transmit data. Additionally, they license their MRAM technology to various companies including Avago Technologies, Honeywell, Cypress Semiconductor Company, and until 2006, Motorola

Wireless Sensors Networks Security

2213 words - 9 pages 1. Introduction Developments in micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) and wireless networks are opening a new domain in networking history. Sensors; often called "smart dust" are low cost small tiny devices with limited coverage, low power, smaller memory sizes and low bandwidth, will play a key role in collecting and disseminating data from the fields where ordinary networks are unreachable for various environmental and strategical

The Smart Grid: Current Electric Grid

1053 words - 4 pages processing that has been present in other industries for decades. It uses sensors and digital communication to gather data and transmit it to a utilities operations center much faster than actual workers can. Power meters, voltage sensors, fault detectors, and etc. are examples of the data that is collected. Case Study Hawaii is a prime example of why the electric grid needs to be updated. The HECO (Hawaiian Electric Company) “told customers that they

Similar Essays

Neural Engineering Essay

617 words - 2 pages example, sensory signals from the eye or from skin can be detected by a range of electronic sensors then delivered to the cortex in the form of electrical stimulus trains. Other potentially helpful applications of neural engineering include the development of novel recording systems to allow long-term recording from small groups of nerve fibers in peripheral muscle or skin nerves and the development of implantable stimulators for use in promoting

Wireless Medical Technology Essay

1448 words - 6 pages picked up by the sensors in the smart band aid, it can send information to the provider or the concerned relative that the patient has taken his pill, thus ensuring patient compliance. • Implantable devices are used for longer monitoring - in some cases, for the patient’s lifetime such as pacemakers and defibrillators. 2) Patient communication and support: This type of application can provide

Terrestrial Systems And Precision Agriculture Essay

3901 words - 16 pages harvesting. Soil preparation was done using draft sensors on tractors which controls operating depth to match variation in soil. Health of seeds were also been monitored to do proper seedings. Terrestrial Autonomous Systems for Precision Agriculture: Current approaches: Autonomous systems are hot cake topic of research today. As Technologies in PA evolved, it has also converged to state where automation is only way to satisfy requirements

Nanotechnology For Africa Development Essay

1721 words - 7 pages and technology will play an important role in resolving the many problems that Africa faces. Nanotechnology promises enormous growth for development in Africa and has the potential to mitigate the problems of hunger, disease, and communication by making it possible for African villages to have sustainable facilities in agriculture, healthcare, and education. As there is a critical shortage of scientific and technical manpower in Africa, an