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Community And Public Health Essay

974 words - 4 pages

Community and public health practices are commonly not stressed in an Associate Degree of Nursing program; unlike the Bachelor of Science in nursing programs that provide students with the knowledge base to differentiate between and recognize public health and community health. This paper will review the history of community and public health. The similarities and differences between public health and community health will be addressed; ending with a review of the disaster management plan for Maricopa County.History of Public HealthPublic health practice can be traced back to the Black Death of the fourteenth century when systems of quarantine were established by towns and cities (Mooney, 2005). In the 1700s, public health organizations were often organized by the police department; health agencies only became involved for the threat of outbreaks (Scutchfied & Keck, 2003). It was not until the late 1800s when an increasing amount of effort was put into enhancing public health. Conventions were held between 1857 and 1860 on systems of quarantine and sanitation in major U.S. cities along the east coast (Scutchfied & Keck, 2003). In 1864, Red Cross was established in the United States (Stanhope & Lancaster 2008); a survey was conducted that same year by a group in New York City to find a correlation of outbreaks and premature infant death among varies sections of the city; this was followed by the establishment of the American Public Health Association in 1872 (Scutchfied & Keck, 2003). In 1915, Yale founded one of the United States first academic programs in public health (Association of Schools of Public Health, 2006). In 1920 public health was defined by Charles Winslow as:The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physicalhealth and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of theenvironment, the control of community infections, the education of the individual inprinciples of personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing service for theearly diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and the development of the socialmachinery, which will ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health (Winklestein, 2009 ¶1).It was not until 1935 when funding became available from the federal government for public health training (Scutchfied & Keck, 2003). By the 1970s and 1980s the majority of the population obtained healthcare services through public health programs (Scutchfied & Keck, 2003). Our nation's quality of life has improved, people are living longer, the number of communicable diseases and infant mortality has decreased due to the efforts put forth by public health officials.History of Community HealthGreen and McKenzie define community health as "the health status of a defined group of people, or community, and the actions and conditions that protect and improve the health of the community" (2009,...

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