1. From the “Writing” sections of this module: The first writing, Cuneiform, developed in Mesopotamian cities around 3000BC. What “big problem” was writing created to solve?
Writing really emerged separately in three regions independently of one another. Those regions are Central and South America, Mesopotamia, and Asia. It is generally accepted that writing (Cuneiform) came about in Mesopotamia as a means of documenting transactions and keeping track of merchandises. Let's say, one mark on a clay tablet intended to be one unit of something (bushel of grains, livestock, etc.), two marks intended to be two unit, and so on. From there individuals understood that if you could represent numbers in writing, then you could as well characterize words. In this way, individuals could communicate with each other deprived of having to be physically present. The Mesopotamian form of writing progressed into all western and Middle Eastern writing form used in the present day.
2. Open the link within this module and read the excerpt from James Burke’s the Axemaker’s Gift. Also, review the end of the “Writing” section of this module. Then explain in your own words the “Cut and Control” Theory that is presented there. Discuss whether or not you agree with the theory by considering whether such things as your SSN, student ID numbers, and Driver’s License numbers make it easier to control you and whether or not this is a bad thing.
The cut and control theory can be describe as a way that the government has the right to control us by assigning us with numbers. I do not agree with this theory. The government does not control what we do but they used numbers such SSN and driver’s license number to identify who we are.
3. From the “Printing” section of this module and the text: Why were books so expensive and the exchange of ideas more difficult before the Printing Press was invented? How did the Printing Press help the Protestant Reformation get started?
In the past, the printing press, all manuscripts were written by hand. It would take months or even years to complete just one duplicate, so, they were very expensive (typically only royalty or the very rich could pay for them) and not very many duplicates were around. The printing press was invented in Germany by a metal smith and printer named Johannes Gutenberg. Despite the fact that it might have taken a year to hand duplicate a book, with the Gutenberg printing press it was probable to generate numerous duplicates a year. The discovery and creation of printing books with movable marks a paradigm shift in the way information was transferred in Europe. The influence of printing is equivalent to the development of writing, and the invention of the alphabet, to the extent that its outcomes on society. Overall, the knowledge came more rapidly to the hands of the people, in the meantime, printed books can be marketed for a fraction of the price of illuminated manuscripts.
I believe that the printing press was...