Comorbidity Between Reading Disability And Adhd

1283 words - 5 pages

Past studies have found that individuals with a reading disability (RD) have a deficit in phonological decoding; a key role in reading development where one learns to translate a string of letters into the resultant sounds. Also, studies have shown that a deficit in phoneme assessment (PA) and other phonological processing account for the majority of cases of those with a reading disability. Studies show that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have a deficiency in executive functioning, the cognitive functions that determine what is appropriate and what is not. These deficiencies are displayed through abnormal behavior. RD and ADHD are generally first identified during childhood or early adolescence. It has been determined that there is a small but significant common genetic cause for RD and ADHD; however, the specifics are unknown. The phenocopy hypothesis suggests that a person diagnosed with one disorder (RD or ADHD) may display signs of the other disorder but the disorder itself does not truly exist. For example, "a child might appear to be inattentive or hyperactive in the classroom because of frustration elicited by difficulties reading…" (159). In this study, measures of executive functioning and phoneme awareness were taken to evaluate those with RD and ADHD. The researchers hypothesized that "ADHD would be associated with deficits on measures of inhibition and verbal working memory but not on measures of the ability to shift cognitive set. In contrast [they] predicted that RD would be associated with either no executive functioning (EF) deficits at all, or mild EF deficits on measures of verbal working memory (160)." The current study took place at the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center and included 314 twins between 8 and 16 years of age from 27 school districts within a 150 mile radius of the Denver/Boulder area. If one twin showed signs of learning difficulties, both were included in the study. A comparison sample was collected in which neither twin showed signs of learning problems. Those with Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) levels below 70, sex chromosome anomalies or other severe learning disorders were excluded from participating in the study. Also, any child who used medication to control symptoms was restricted from using their medication 24 hours prior to the study. RD was determined by an evaluation of school records and ADHD was evaluated through parental ratings. The participants were divided into four groups; RD alone (n = 93), RD and ADHD (n = 48), ADHD alone (n = 52) and those with neither RD nor ADHD (n = 102). Only those who met the DSM-IV criteria of having a score below both the average for their age and the expected score based on their overall cognitive ability were included in the RD sample. The individuals reading discriminant score was combined with their FSIQ (determined by the WISC-R) score to determine an IQ discrepant score in order to control the IQ...

Find Another Essay On Comorbidity Between Reading Disability and ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Essay

2003 words - 8 pages . & Martel, M. (2012). Semantic language as a mechanism explaining the h association between ADHD symptoms and reading and mathematics underachievement. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 1339-1349. doi: 10.1007/s10802-012-9650-7. Ketelaars, M.P., Cuperus, J., Jansonius, K., & Verhoeven,L.(2010). Research report: Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents Essay

1264 words - 5 pages . The material may not be interesting or perplexing enough for the child, and in many circumstances, this is mistaken for ADHD. Instead, this may be a result of an undiagnosed learning disability. A number of teenagers identified with ADHD do better one-on-one rather than in large groups. A teen with severe symptoms of ADHD will have problems in all settings. The different settings include the home, at school, and even while playing. Undiagnosed

Twice Exceptional: ADHD and Giftedness

1477 words - 6 pages Joey is a bright, happy, healthy, and somewhat excitable 10 year old boy. He has been identified as gifted and has an IQ of about 165. He has also been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). He is receiving Special Education services at his school for what has been labeled an Emotional Disability. He has a hard time maintaining friendship with children his own age and sometimes


1226 words - 5 pages ADHD is just a behavior problem. This is what many think but it?s actually not. ADHD is a disability in the brain and the spinal chord.I. Understanding ADHD A. What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder B. The causes of ADHD C. The family life as a result of ADHD 1. How ADHD effects the mother and father 2. How ADHD effects the siblings II. Coping with an ADHD child A. Coping with the diagnosis B. Coping at home 1. Eight steps to better


461 words - 2 pages overreact or lash out when they feel bad about themselves. Outbursts of temper, acting belligerent, defiant, or stubborn is characteristic of children with this comorbidity ( Without help, children with this disorder may develop antisocial behaviors, which may cause them trouble in school and even with the law. Lastly, ADHD may have a comorbidity of emotional disorders including anxiety and depression. Excessive anxiety and depression

ADHD in Females

1048 words - 4 pages " á often talks excessively; often blurts out answers before questions have been completed; á often has difficulty awaiting turn; often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g. butts into conversations or games) Hyperactivity and impulsiveness are not both needed to be ADHD. An ADHD individual without hyperactivity is interchangably referred to as ADD, which most ADHD females are. Between 3 and 5% of school age children are affected with the

problems with adhd

1210 words - 5 pages , only a small percentage of children who have ADHD have experienced a traumatic brain injury. (retrieved on November 22, 2013, In addition, to genetics and brain injury, researchers believe environment and nutrition can play a huge role in causes of ADHD. There may be a link between maternal smoking and children with ADHD. However, women who have ADHD themselves are more likely to smoke, so once again the genetics factor cannot be


633 words - 3 pages ADHD stands for Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder. It is considered an intellectual disability. It causes a lack of focus, over activity, or lack of behavior control. It could be a combination of the three symptoms. ADHD is most commonly found in children, but it can also be portrayed in adults. Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD. Research has shown that genes, environmental, brain injuries, sugar, and food additives could all

Annotated Bibliographies for Adhd

1950 words - 8 pages deficits in age-adjusted height or age and height-adjusted weight were detected in ADHD girls. Also, we found no association between growth measurements and psychotropic treatment, malnutrition, short stature, pubertal development, family history of ADHD, or psychiatric comorbidity, except for major depression: ADHD girls with major depression were on average 7.6 kg heavier than ADHD girls without depression, adjusting for age and

ADHD Notes

636 words - 3 pages LEARNING DISABILITY RESEARCH NOTESSummary/InformationADHD, also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a type of learning disability occurring primarily in children. A person with ADHD has notable problems of attention and hyperactivity. Even though lots of research has been made on this particular behavioural disorder, we still do not know what the cause of it is. Attention, hyperactivity, and other traits are what most children

ADHD Notes

636 words - 3 pages LEARNING DISABILITY RESEARCH NOTESSummary/InformationADHD, also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a type of learning disability occurring primarily in children. A person with ADHD has notable problems of attention and hyperactivity. Even though lots of research has been made on this particular behavioural disorder, we still do not know what the cause of it is. Attention, hyperactivity, and other traits are what most children

Similar Essays

Relationship Between Reading Pullout Lessons And Reading Examination Results For Students In Springdale, Ar

3374 words - 13 pages Relationship Between Reading Pullout Lessons and Reading Examination Results for Students in Springdale, AR Due to overwhelming focus being placed on the importance of test scores as the institution of the No Child Left Behind Act in January of 2002 (U.S. Department of Education, date), reading in English is fundamental to student success. This has lead to an uprising in pullout reading programs to aid ESL students in bringing up their

Reading Between The Lines: Use Of Space And Body Language In Caryl Churchill's 'top Girls'

1798 words - 7 pages The question of how body-language and space are used in Caryl Churchill's `Top Girls' is interesting. A traditional view exists that a play is dictated by the text to the extent that the actors ought not to deviate from a pure reading. This theory emphasises authorial control and allows performers little opportunity to interpret the text for the audience. A competing view is that a play is a complete entity only when performed, aiming for a

Ties Between Nature And Magic In Sir Orfeo And A Midsummer Night's Dream Close Reading Essay Essay

810 words - 4 pages Close Reading Essay "Sir Orfeo" and 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' show close ties between nature and magic and imply that nature and magic are interrelated. There are many cases of magical events taking place in natural surroundings in both the works. This essay will explore these instances and will work on establishing ties between nature and magic. To begin with, in "Sir Orfeo" when Heurodis first sees the king of Faeries she is in a green

Dyxlexia And Comorbidity Essay

2110 words - 9 pages symptoms both correlated with development of reading disability, the inattentive type was a stronger predictor. It was found that the genetic factors were the most likely cause for development of reading disability concurrently with ADHD, due to the high heritability noted for both disorders and the stability of the correlation between ADHD symptoms and reading disability over time. Works Cited American Psychiatric Association. (1994