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Business Management Strategy Essay

1983 words - 8 pages

While classics focused on long term and the processuals focused on short term survival of the firm, the evolutionaries thought such controls were too difficult and often impossible given the nature of hostility and competitiveness of markets. The evolutionary school understood the shortcomings of the first 20years of strategic decision making and found that the failure of the organizational strategies were attributed to circumstances outside the control of the firm itself. For them the firm needed to focus on the present for its survival not long term, unknown future. They felt that the outside market conditions posed harsh realities for the firm and therefore the firm needed to focus on the present. Given these the harsh realities it was about the survival of the fittest and therefore need to focus on the external markets in which the organisation functioned. It is a Darwinistic approach of biological evolution which looks at the environment as unpredictable; a fallacy by the classics who felt they could control everything (Nelson & Winter, 1992; Xaivier, Swaminthan, & Will, 1998). The evolutionary thinking focused on maximizing strategic goals only as they related to the present. They feel that decisions in the outside environment are controlled by the market place and therefore the role of the CEO is not as paramount as others espoused. Their view is that the role of management is to concentrate resources on what is currently needed and exploit existing opportunities because there are limited resources and that the firm cannot control it all (Markides 1999; 2000; Porter 1996).

1.1 Systemic Approach

The evolutionary school focused on the external market for the survival of the firm in a short term without societal influences. This was seen as limiting by theorists in the 1990s who felt that it was more about the external societal conditions which dictated how the organisation functioned rather than only the external markets. This view felt that strategizing needed to also recognize not only the individual parts but also the society’s rules and practices which influence the strategic process. In his interview about the systemic approach Ackoff (2003), thought that management can develop a vision (strategy) “of what the organization could be within the emerging culture and environment” if there is an overall understanding of the inside and outside of the organization (Allio: 23). This view is supported by Botten (2009) who believes that the strategic process has to be “more aware of the cultural environment and societies in which the organization must operate. Systemic theory therefore looks at the societal structures, the culture and its people, which influence the strategic process. This is because strategizing is conducted by individuals who are a product of society with beliefs, values and norms which influence how they behave and make strategic decisions for the organisation (Botten: 12). The strategist must therefore be able to...

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