The central theme of this report will evaluate the health systems of two developing nations in Southeast Asia. The two nations that have been studied are Indonesia and Laos. The Republic of Indonesia is a developing nation, the fourth largest country in the world by population and the world’s third-largest democracy. The nation faces challenges with improving their health system and the health of their people. The second nation Laos is known as the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a Marxist-Leninist state ruled by the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP). Laos a low-income nation has endured social and economic transformations since the introduction of market-based economic ...view middle of the document...
(Djoko, 2003) This first stage was led by President Sukarno who is known for establishing parliament with a ‘Guided Democracy.’ The second stage was led by President Suharto who led the government with a ‘New Order’ which saw the birth of an authoritarian government system. This stage concentrated on building the economy and political stability through the process of industrialization and rural development. Post President Sukarno’s leadership democratic elections have been held since 1999 which has seen government leaders reform their political system to a more democratic and civil society.
Laos a land-locked country which sits centrally to five bordering countries; China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand and Burma. Laos was founded by the French in 1893 and later became the Lao People’s Democratic Republic in December 1975 after the forced abdication of King Sisavang Vatthana who had reigned over Laos since 1959. Laos has a population of approximately 6.6 million people which is made up of 49 different ethnic groups, which are all formally recognised by the Government. The land mass of Laos is 237, 000 square kilometres, with the most densely populating area being Vientiane, the capital. (Australian Government, 2014)
While the LPDR has experienced violence from groups opposed to the government it is generally a relatively stable nation. (EIU ViewsWire, 2005) The country is a communist state which remained relatively closed off to the world until the 1990s. At this time country started passing foreign investment laws which saw Laos become a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Laos unlike western nations is a single-party state, which means only the LPRP is legally allowed to hold power. As a result Laos is governed by Marxism-Leninism a form of anti-conservative, anti-reactionary government that’s principles are based on Marx’s analysis of capitalism with Lenin’s theories of revolutionary action.
Indonesia’s and Laos’ Millennium Development Goals
Since September 2000 Indonesia and Laos have sets goals under the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) program. The MDGs of each nation is a good measure for determining current pitfalls in the health of both nations. The nations that are a part of the UN’s program must develop a report each year to outline how gaols are progressing.
Indonesia set eight MDGs which three of were predominantly health related goals, including: improving maternal health, eradicating extreme hunger and poverty and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. Steps taken by the government since 2000 have included decentralizing control of services to district governments and the passing of a National Social Security System (NSSS) in 2004.
The decentralizing of services such as health in 2001 from national control to district control saw more Indonesians utilizing health care services in their districts, due to the increased funding provided with the decentralizing. A conference...