While taking courses in my graduate studies in school counseling, I learned a lot about Piaget and his theory. For this assignment, I chose to look more in depth at King and Kitchener’s Reflective Judgment Model. I chose this theory because it deals with reflection, which was a very important component of my interview with an adult educator. I agreed with the person I interviewed when she stated that she felt adults learn best through reflection. I wanted to look deeper into this area.
According to King and Kitchener’s model, “people move through seven stages, with the final two stages encompassing the more mature thinking patterns of what King and Kitchener call reflective thinking” ...view middle of the document...
Only interpretations of events or evidence are known.
In the final stages of King and Kitchener’s theory, knowledge is no longer given. In stage six, knowledge is constructed into conclusions by collecting information from a variety of sources. Beliefs are justified by comparing evidence and opinions across different perspectives. In the final stage, knowledge is the outcome of a process of reasonable inquiries. Justification of beliefs come from a variety of considerations including the weight of the evidence and the risk of incorrect data. People defend their conclusions at this stage by their understanding of an issue and not the basis of the evidence available.
Most individuals do not fit into one particular stage and function on multiple stages at the same time. Research has been completed throughout the years using King and Kitchener’s reflective judgment model since their initial research. Researchers have examined impact of education and sociocultural factors. Research has found “there is a trend for older, more educated participants to score higher on the reflective judgment model than younger, less educated individuals” (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 334). Results vary by gender and ethnicity as well.
We cannot avoid the changes that take place in our development due to biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. We all know that aging cannot be avoided and brings about the most obvious changes in our development throughout life. I chose to look at Levinson’s age graded model because we are all getting older and cannot stop it! It is also helpful to understand how people change due to aging in our personal and professional lives, allowing us to work with people in a more caring and understanding manner. Levinson and Levinson conducted their research in 1996 and their studies “suggest that people evolve through an orderly sequence of stable and transitional periods that correlate with chronological age” (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 307). Patterns are established during stable periods of time and are then changed during transitional or less stable periods of time. They divided their life transitions into five periods. The first transition takes place between the ages of seventeen and twenty-two, a time when many people are just transitioning to adulthood from being a full time high school student. The second transition takes place between the ages of twenty-two to twenty-eight. The third transition is between the ages of twenty-eight and thirty-three and a fourth transition is between the ages of thirty-three and forty. The model ends starting at age sixty, which is referred to as late adulthood. With the increase in life expectancy, I wouldn’t be surprised if another stage could be added to the model at some point.
There are many events that bring about change in these transitional periods including marriage, birth of children, occupational changes, friendships,...