Compare And Contrast India And China's Population

1540 words - 6 pages

China and India are the two countries that have the highest population in the world. Both countries have realised that family planning and population control had to happen around the 1950's for India and the 1970's for China. This essay will seek to compare and contrast China and India, focusing on what the major problems facing both are, why have they both had to implement policies regarding population control, and the long-term and short-term effects that these policies have on the two countries.The major problem concerning China is over population. Due to overpopulation, the demand for energy to light every house and for petrol to fuel every car is becoming too great. With added pressure of providing for the people, more natural resources and fossil fuels are used up. There is also a shortage of jobs. China has a population of 1.31 billion people. In 2003, the total of number of unemployed people in China was 744,320,000. The World Bank said that the total unemployment level was close to 10%, though that is only the number of people who are registered as unemployed. The real figure would be substantially greater. China is faced with, because of overpopulation, lack of space. Approximately 137 people live on each square kilometre of China's territory, China ranking 71st on the worlds list of the countries with the highest population densities. The world average is 43 people per square kilometre, making China three times the average figure. Also a pressing issue is the state of poverty in China, (due to the recent focus on a new type of capitalism, there are marked contrasts between rich and poor). The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation states that there is ample food to feed the population. The problem lies then in how effectively the food is distributed. There is also a severe lack of adequate education. In recent years, literacy rates have drastically decreased. Illiteracy for persons aged 15 and over for 1990 was 22.2% and for 2000 it was 8.7%. In 1964 the illiteracy rates for college and university were 0.5%, and in 1990 they were 1.6%. India faces much the same problems, though as the world's largest democracy (population-wise); the way that the government goes about everyday things is quite different. Contrary to China's system of 'equally' dividing wages and food, the Indian population have to work for themselves. As with China, India is suffering the brunt of overpopulation, shortage of jobs, lessening of natural resources, decreasing literacy rates, and a population density level rivalling China's.After the Chinese Cultural Revolution, once Mao Zedong had assumed power, he introduced a Five Year Plan that ran from 1958-1963 which was known as The Great Leap Forward. This vision failed and resulted in widespread starvation, being the world's worst man-made famine. The death toll is estimated 30 million. Mao's following philosophy was that "the more people, the stronger we are". Families were encouraged to have as many children as...

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