In this paper I will compare and contrast Spearman's Model of Intelligence and Gardner's Multiple Intelligence models. One theory of intelligence states that there is one general school of thought and the other theory believes there are multiple schools of thought. Spearman's general ability, or a "g" factor, believe that this is the only factor that measures intelligence, whereas, Gardner's multiple intelligence believes there are more than one factor (Wade & Tavris, 2006, pp. 322 & 328).
Spearman's theory is supported by a high IQ and very simple cognitive tasks. These tests are considered very simple; for example, one test that might be done is to see how fast a person reacts to hearing a sound by raising their hands. On the other hand, Gardner's theory has a solid biological basis, and has biological facts. He studies the different parts of the brain of different individuals, because no two individuals are alike.
Spearman believes that no matter what the single factor is, it can be defined as intelligence (Wade & Tavris, 2006). This means that he believes the human mind processes information and people react to different situations on one single factor in the brain. He does not believe like Gardner does, that the brain has different parts that control different aspects of human intelligence. But, whereas, Gardner believes that there are seven different areas of the brain so therefore, there are seven different forms of intelligence, they are: linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily, interpersonal, intrapersonal and logic-mathematical (Plucker, 2003). He believes that each is related to different portions of the brain. For example, he explains that people with brain damage in one area of the brain, does not mean they lose their competence in other areas of the brain (Wade & Tavris, 2006). He also, unlike Spearman, thinks that if someone had a disability in one area that they are able to be productive in other different areas.
Another area of difference in these two models of intelligence theories is the process of how intelligence is determined. Spearman's belief is that speed of which information is processed is the essential determination of the level of intelligence of an individual. In other words, it depends on how fast someone can arrange blocks to resemble a design, assemble puzzles, use a coding scheme, or judge what behavior is appropriate for a given situation (Wade & Tavris, 2006, p. 321). He does not believe that the brain uses different parts to figure out different problems or situations; it is all done with the whole brain. Whereas, Gardner's definition of intelligence views it as many things, he defines it in a much broader way than Spearman. His theory is that people develop intelligence by a development process (Plucker, 2003). For example, people take courses at a...