Comparing And Contrasting The Han And Roman Civilizations

949 words - 4 pages

Around the years 200 B.C.E two great civilizations emerged as powerful and influential Empires. The Han civilization and the Roman Civilization. Both civilizations contributed to the ancient world, with revolutionary technologies, literature, mathematics, and extensive trade. Although these were powerful nations, the causes of their decline were quite similar. Inept rulers, social discordance, and hostile incursions, are some of the numerous factors that brought about their inevitable downfall.
Both the Hans and the Romans diverged from prior civilizations. The Han came about after overthrowing the Qin Dynasty who were incompetent in the later years of the Dynasty. The Qin Dynasty was highly centralized actuating through legalist ideals, hence the government were oppressive towards their people. Thus, the dynasty collapsed due to internal mutiny. Liu Bang took over and established the Han Dynasty. To the west in what is now the Italian peninsula, a cultural group called Etruscans ruled over the Roman people and soon the monarch government was deposed by the aristocracy. This is how both civilizations were born. Both sprouted from other governments. However China was much more different since the stretch of land had been greatly developed by the preceding Dynasties( Shang, Zhou, and Qin), where as the Romans commenced in just the city of Rome.
Military might was possessed by both the Han and the Romans. For this reason the blooming nations were able to conquer ample territory, thus procuring significant wealth. Chinese territory expanded into Central Asia, Korea, and Indochina. One main contributor to the expansion of China was Emperor Wudi (141-195 B.C.E) who conducted military campaigns. The same occurred in Rome. The Roman Republic sought new land to dominate. Two consuls were assigned to direct military procedures. The Romans soon conquered the whole peninsula. Over time, once the Roman Republic gave way to the Roman Empire, their power pervaded through all the Mediterranean, from Spain to parts of Asia Minor. To the north, the Roman Empire spread to what is now France as will as into parts of Britain. The Empire reached its limit with Emperor Trajan. Both civilizations covered a large expanse of land. It was this that made it difficult to maintain it, and shelter it from barbaric adversities.
The Han Empire was clearly more advanced in technology and knowledge than the Romans. This fact should not be misconstrued. The Romans did contrive of new technologies such as aqueducts. Tools were also invented, examples include the level and the claw hammer. Public buildings, forums, and palaces were all constructed with marble, this evinces their great wealth and architectural expertise. The Han on the other hand had a substantial working force with a prominent governmental bureaucracy. Like Rome the Han had had a civil service exam system, that allowed individuals from the lower levels of social hierarchy, to rise and excel as governing...

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