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Comparing Amount Of Glucose In Orange Fruit, Grapefruit And Lemon Fruit

2176 words - 9 pages

Comparing Amount of Glucose in Orange Fruit, Grapefruit and Lemon Fruit

I have been given 4% of glucose solution, benedict's solution and
distilled water to find out the concentration of glucose of these
three juices; orange, lemon, and grapefruit.

The method of serial dilution has to be done to work out the
concentration; this is because the concentration of glucose is far too
concentrated. A dilution factor has to be worked out; I will be using
a dilution factor of 5, which means the amount of glucose and the
percentage of glucose will always divide by 2 as the dilution solution
carries on.

Theory

Orange, lemon and grapefruit are all fruits which contain
carbohydrates which include reducing sugars. Glucose is a hexose
sugar, which is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms in each of its
molecules.

Benedict's solution is a deep-blue alkaline solution used to test for
the presence of the aldehyde functional group, CHO - which are present
in reducing sugars. Benedict's solution changes colour when a reducing
sugar is present because of a chemical reaction, which reduces the
Copper II sulphate (which is soluble) to copper I oxide, which is
insoluble and produces a precipitate. The benedict's solution changes
colour from blue to green, yellow, orange, brown and finally red - as
the amount of sugar increases.

Colorimeter

Instruments for the analysis of coloured solutions include the
colorimeter. In both these instruments, light emitted from a source
passes through the sample to be analysed, and the intensity of the
emergent beam is measured by a photoelectric device and recorded on a
milliameter. The wavelength of the light incident on the test solution
must be controlled: in the colorimeter this is done by placing a
coloured filter in the path of the incident light.

Prediction:

I predict that orange juice is the most concentrated out of the three
juices, which are orange, grapefruit and lemon. Orange juice should
have a higher concentration of glucose, followed by Grapefruit then
lemon. I have predicted this because of a source I have obtained which
showed that orange has the greatest number of grams of
monosaccharides.

The juice sample

The amount of monosaccharides in grams

Orange

8.5grams

Grapefruit

5.3g

Lemon

1.6g

(Manuel of nutrition by Mafa)

If there is a greater number of monosaccharides there would be a
higher concentration of glucose present. Benedict's test can prove
this as the more reducing sugar present the greater the amount and the
darker the colour of the precipitate.

A Benedict's test is a test, which can be used to show the presence of
reducing sugars.

I predict that orange juice would have the a more red precipitate
colour solution followed by grapefruit with a slight brownish...

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