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Comparing The Enthalpy Changes Of Combustion Of Different Alcohols.

3350 words - 13 pages

Plan:Aim:The enthalpy change of combustion of a fuel is a measure of the energy transferred when one mole of fuel burns completely. A value for the enthalpy change can be obtained by using the burning fuel to heat water and using fact that 4.2j of energy are required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1oC. In this investigation my aim is to find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohols so that I can investigate how and why the enthalpy change is affected by the molecular structure of the alcohol.I am going to investigate the enthalpy change of combustion for the alcohol homologous series. I will investigate how alcohols with increasing number of carbons affect the enthalpy change when an alcohol goes under combustion. The energy that alcohols release when being used is called the enthalpy change of combustion.As I already know that alcohols are a series of organic compounds which all contain a -OH group.My Prediction:By using the knowledge that I already have I think that the alcohols with a larger number of carbon atoms within the molecule will have a greater alcohol change of combustion than the alcohols with less carbon atoms. So therefore I predict that as the molecular mass increases so does the enthalpy of combustion.The alcohols that I intend to use throughout this investigation are the following 6 alcohols:Ø Methanol - CH3OH solvent; fuel; manufacture of organic chemicals; denaturing ethanol straight chain alcohol.Ø Ethanol - (CH3CH2OH) ethyl alcohol; grain alcohol. A colorless, flammable liquid produced by fermentation of sugars. Straight chains.Ø Butane - CH3CH2CH2CH3, colourless, with a characteristic natural odorØ Pentan-1-ol -straight chains alcohol.Ø Hexan-1-ol - straight chain alcohol.Ø Propan-1-ol - straight chain alcohol.Using the alcohols listed above I will measure the amount of energy produced by them when burnt in air. As I am calculating the enthalpy change of combustion, in order to calculate the enthalpy change of combustion for my chosen alcohols.Ø I will firstly burn my chosen alcohol to heat 100cm3 of waterØ Remembering that 4.2 j of energy is needed to increase the temperature by 1g of water by 1oCØ So therefore I will need to measure the quantity of alcohol that have burned in the experiment and convert it into moles.All the combustion reactions from the alcohols will be exothermic; exothermic is a process that releases heat, in an exothermic reaction, the enthalpy of the reacting system decreases is negative. In an endothermic reaction, the enthalpy of the reacting system increases is positive. The enthalpy change for an exothermic process is negative. Examples of exothermic processes are combustion reactions and neutralisation reactions.The graph below shows the enthalpy level diagram for an exothermic reaction, eg burning methane: CH4 + 202 CO2 + 2H20.To carry out my investigation I will need the following equipment:Ø...

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