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Comparing The Solubility's Of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride And Potassium Nitrate

1121 words - 4 pages

Comparing the solubility's of copper sulphate, sodium chloride and potassium nitrateBackground InformationMolecular solids (sugar) and ionic solids (salts) both dissolve in water. However, they both dissolve in different ways.The intermolecular forces holding molecules of sugar together are relatively weak so when sugar is placed in water these bonds are broken and individual C12H22O11 molecules are released into solution. It takes energy to break bonds between C12H22O11 molecules and it also takes energy to break the hydrogen bonds in water. These hydrogen bonds have to be disrupted in order to insert a sugar molecule into the substance. The energy needed for this is produced by the forming of bonds between slightly polar sucrose molecules and polar water molecules. This process works so well between sugar and water that up to 800g of sugar can dissolve in 1 litre of water.The positive and negative ions in ionic solids (or salts) are held together by the strong force of attraction between particles with opposite charges. When a salt dissolves in water the ions are released and become associated with the polar solvent molecules. Salts dissociate with their ions when they dissolve in water.H2Oe.g. NaCl (s) Na+ (aq) + Cl (aq)There are several factors that will affect solubility between different compounds:Temperature - If the solution process absorbs energy then the solubility will beincreased if there is a temperature increase. If the solutionreleases energy (exothermic, i.e. between sugar and water)then solubility will decrease.Molecular Size - If the size or weight of the individual molecules is large thensolubility will be low because larger molecules are difficult tosurround with solvent molecules.Polarity - Generally only polar solute molecules will dissolve in polar solventsand only non-polar solute molecules will dissolve in non-polarsolvents. Polar solute molecules have positive and negative ends.So if a polar solute molecule is placed in a polar solvent then thepositive ends of solvent molecules will attract the negative ends ofsolute molecules. This type of intermolecular force is known as di-pole-dipole interaction. The type of intermolecular force in present innon-polar molecules is called London Dispersion forces. Here thepositive nuclei of the atoms of the solute molecules will attract thenegative electrons of the atoms of a solvent molecule.Branching - This factor only applies to organic compounds. The amount ofcarbon branching will increase solubility because more branching will reduce the size of the molecule, making it easier to solvate.ChemicalsThe chemicals I will be using will be:1. Copper Sulphate - A salt soluble in water and methanol. Blue crystals.(CuSO4 SH2O) White colour when hydrated. May irritate skin, eyes,nose and throat. May affect liver if inhaled orswallowed.2. Sodium Chloride - Common rock salt.(NaCl)3. Potassium Nitrate - Colourless crystals. May ignite combustible materials.(KNO3) May evolve toxic...

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