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Comparison Of The Unifications Of Italy And Germany

1824 words - 7 pages

Table of ContentsChapter 1: Introduction 1Chapter 2: Similarities 1-4Division of Each Country 1The Leading States 1-2iii. Involvement of Napoleon III 2-3iv. Failed Revolutions 3v. Nationalism 3-4Chapter 3: Differences 4-6i. Leaders 4ii. Context of Unification 4-5iii. Great Powers 5iv. Unitary vs. Federal States 5v. The Goal of Each Nation 5-6Chapter 4: Conclusion 6Chapter 1: IntroductionBoth Italy and Germany became unified in the mid to late 1800s after years of unrest that started with the 1815 Congress of Vienna, where both of these countries were split up into many states. One can compare and contrast these unification processes because they had many similarities and differences. In order to properly assess these situations one needs to look at the individual factors that led to unification and how they can be compared. While there were similarities in the Unifications of Italy and Germany, overall the processes were very different.Chapter 2: SimilaritiesDivision of each CountryDespite the differences in the unifications of these two nations, there are some clear similarities in the factors that let to unification. One of the most obvious similarities one can point out is the fact that in order to be unified, these countries were separated first. From 1815 to Unification, Germany was separated into 39 states, whereas Italy was separated into 11. The separation of these nations was decided at the 1815 Congress of Vienna, and they were separated for different reasons. Italy was divided into the 11 original states it had been in before the Napoleonic era; whereas the number of states in Germany was significantly reduced from somewhere around 300 to 39.The Leading StatesOne of the main similarities as far as the unification process is that for both countries, unification was led by the most economically advanced state. In Germany the unification was led by Prussia, which had recently overtaken Austria as the most powerful state in Germany. With the Zollverein created under the concept of the Prussian Customs Union, Prussia was at the head of the most significant economic advancement in Germany at the time. Piedmont was similarly at the top of Italian economic advancement. This was mainly thanks to Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, the Prime Minister of Piedmont starting in the 1850s, and the man who primarily led the Italian Unification process. Cavour came into office with a very strong understanding of financial matters and by 1860 its trade increased by 300 percent and Piedmont's 800 kilometers of railway track was one third of the peninsula's total. Due to the powerful nature of these states, they were both able to take a lead in the unification process.Another clear similarity between Italy and Germany was Austria's involvement in the unification of both nations. In Germany, Austria was the leading power of the German Confederation. The Habsburg Empire controlled most of the political doings in the German Confederation, until Prussia became...

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