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Comparison Of Ethiopia And Mali Essay

1793 words - 7 pages

A Brief Overview of the History of Ethiopia

Ethiopia is one of the most unique among African countries for maintaining its freedom from colonial rule, with the short exception of an occupation by the Italians from 1936-1941. A socialist state was established in 1974 with the overthrow of Emperor Selassie, who had been in control since 1930. A junta or group of military officers called the Derg was responsible for the coup. Yet, this corrupt administration has lead only to warfare and wide scale public suffering. In 1991, the junta was finally brought down by a combination of revolutionary forces who called themselves the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. In 1994, a constitution was drafted and 1995 marked Ethiopia’s first multiparty elections. Recently, a boarder feud with Eritrea, that lasted over 2 years, was ended in December of 2000; yet recent objections by Ethiopia have delayed a final declaration of border.
The landlocked country of Ethiopia is located in east Africa, just west of Somalia, and is roughly twice the size of Texas . Ethiopia’s natural resources include platinum, copper, and small reserves of gold. Only .65% of the land is suitable and allotted for permanent crops. Ethiopia is currently facing several environmental concerns including deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, and water shortages due to poor management of water-intensive farming. Ethiopia’s population is in excess of 66 million. Ethiopia is home to numerous ethnic groups, the largest being Oromo, which accounts for 40% of the population. About half of the Ethiopian population is Muslim, with the majority of the other half practicing Ethiopian Orthodox. Ethiopia’s government is a federal republic which grants its citizens voting rights at 18 years of age. Currently, Ethiopia faces the problem of attempting to control the illicit drugs that come through the country, as it acts as a hub for the transportation of heroin and cocaine.

A Brief Overview of the History of Mali

Mali became a French colony in 1904 and was renamed French Sudan. In June of 1960, it gained its’ independence and became known as the Sudanese Republic. The Sudanese Republic associated with the Republic of Senegal under one federation. In August of 1960, Senegal broke off connections with the federation, and the Sudanese Republic changed its name to The Republic of Mali. In the late 1960’s, the government was overthrown and Mali was placed under military rule. This rule was ended in 1991 and by 1992 Mali announced its first democratically elected president.
Mali is located in western Africa and is nearly twice the size of Texas . Mali has several valuable natural resources including gold, salt, limestone, and uranium. Only .04% of Mali’s land is suitable for permanent crops. Poaching, deforestation, and soil-erosion are all extensive environmental problems that Mali is faced with. Mali’s population is slightly over 11.5 million and has a growth rate of 2.82%....

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