Comparison Of Pavlov Vs Bandura. Essay

2112 words - 8 pages

We use the term classical conditioning to describe one type of associative learning in which there is no contingency between response and reinforcer. This situation resembles most closely the experiment from Pavlov in the 1920s, where he trained his dogs to associate a bell ring with a food-reward (Ryle 1995). In such experiments, the subject initially shows weak or no response to a conditioned stimulus (CS, e.g. the bell), but a measurable unconditioned response (UCR, e.g. saliva production) to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, e.g. food). In the course of the training, the CS is repeatedly presented together with the UCS; eventually the subject forms an association between the US and the CS. In a subsequent test-phase, the subject will show the conditioned response (CR, e.g. saliva production) to the CS alone, if such an association has been established and memorized. Such Pavlovian conditioning is opposed to instrumental or operant, where producing a CR controls the UCS presentations (Ryle 1995). Therefore, classical conditioning involves learning by association - where you simply learn by associating two events that often occur together.Conditioning, in general occurs more rapidly when the conditioned stimulus is unfamiliar rather than familiar. High order conditioning is when a CS can be used to produce a response from another neutral stimulus (can evoke CS). There are a couple of different orders or levels. Taking Pavlov's dogs as an example (Ryle 1995), where light is paired with food. The food is a US since it produces a response without any prior learning. Then, when food is paired with a neutral stimulus (light) it becomes a Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - the dog begins to respond (salivate) to the light without the presentation of the food. One of the principles of classical conditioning is extinction. If a CS is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, the CR will disappear. In Pavlov's case, if a dog learns to associate the sound of a bell with food and then the bell is rung repeatedly but if no food appears the dog will soon stop salivating to the bell.Another principle to classical conditioning is the spontaneous recovery -- supposing that a response is classically conditioned then extinguished (Millin & Riccio 2002). If a few hours or days later, the CS is presented again, the CR will probably reappear. As spontaneous recovery is a term used for this temporary return of an extinguished response after a delay. Thus, the elimination of a conditioned response usually requires more than one extinction lesson. Pavlov's dog who was conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell of one tone may well salivate to a similar sounding bell or a buzzer. Stimulus generalization is the extension of the conditioned response from the original stimulus to similar stimuli. The conditioned response to a similar stimulus is not as strong as the response to the original stimulus; the less similar the weaker the response (Millin &...

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