This paper discusses two post-classical regions/societies (the post-classical Islamic and Indian society), and will draw upon the class lectures and readings to discuss the similarities and differences between the Islamic World and the Indian region during the post-classical era. The post-classical era refers to the historical period after the Iron Age, and falls between 200 CE and 1500 CE (Stearns, 79). During this period, there existed no enduring imperial authority, but the Indian society came to have a profound influence on the southern Asian cultures. During this time, it was also the norm to have regional kingdoms, and as a result, there were Indian forms of politics, economies and, religion all over the region, which was made possible by the extensive trade network within the Indian Ocean basin. As such, by the 13th c. C.E., there existed flourishing Muslim communities and emerging Sultanates from the Southern region of India to the Western Pacific Rim (Lecture 16).
In the post-classical Indian society, there were many regional kingdoms (Lecture 16). Politically, both the Islamic and Indian society had strong influence on the how the neighboring societies were shaped during the post-classical era. During this period, there was a collapse of centralized political rule within the Indian society. There were also several internal wars and invasions in the Indian region, and led to a situation in which this the northern Indian region became politically fragmented and quite chaotic. There was a lack of political unification in both societies which made foreign incursion easy, and this probably led to Muslim conquests in the Northern region of India between 8th-13th c. C.E. (Lecture 16). In the Islamic world, two emissaries from the Delhi sultan who had converted to Islam, went back to their Hindu roots and established their own kingdom.
In the southern Indian region, there were smaller Hindu kingdoms, but even though these kingdoms were politically divided, they were generally spared the constant wars and invasions that were quite frequent in the northern region. There was also an expansion of Islam through military expansion in Northern India, and through Islamic merchants in Southern India (Lecture 16). During the post-classical era, the Chola Dynasty rose in Southern India between 9th-13th c. C.E. and came to be rich and powerful through sea trade, and started to exert their influence over most parts of southern India (Lecture 16).
During the post-classical era, there was a lot of trade in the Indian Ocean basin, and this served to create stronger links between the Indian society and the Islamic world. In the Indian society, as well as the Islamic regions, farmers were able to become conversant...