Each of the three main theorists, Marx, Durkheim, and Weber have significantly different aspects on how society is held together. Some things about their theories are related in few ways. Marx was quoted, “The origins of change are all materialistic, not based on ideas.” This aspect focuses on how material items are the basis of society. Durkheim focused on the dependence of others to make society work. Weber used the focus of religion affecting all aspects of life. This is known as social cohesion.
Marx’s theories became known as “Marxism.” Marxism is defined by Webster’s Dictionary as “theories and practices of socialism including the labor theory… dialectical materialism, the class struggle, and the dictatorship of the proletariat until the establishment of a classless society.” The goal of Marx was to have an all equal society, or as we know it today Communism or Socialism. The labor theory incorporates the idea of alienation. Alienation is directly related to the working class. As the workers work, they begin to realize they gain no fruits of their own labor. Because the idea is not their own, they have no sense of creativity. Without this sense of creativity they are given the feeling of being alienated from the world, the workers are reduced from an active human being to a passive result or object. (AnthroBase.com)
I think that even though Marx saw alienation as a problem with the people that this is what kept the society going. The dependence on others kept the society in constant function. The capitalists need the workers to complete the job so that money could be made; they passed a bit of the money back down to the workers for making the goods made. To achieve a society without any struggles would be ideal for Marx. Though he did believe that the social power was what kept the society functioning. The social powers were controlled by the materialistic things. Without the materialistic things a society would not be able to function.
The society that is created is a capitalistic society. In the capitalistic society as stated before the proletariat, or worker are dependent on the capitalists for an income to survive, which both are dependent on the good being produced to survive. Waiting at the bottom are what Marx referred to as “a reserve army.” The reserve army is what we would consider today as the unemployed. “If a worker does not want to do a job at the wage the capitalist offers, someone else in the reserve army of the unemployed will.” (Ritzer) This separation causes the inequality of power and wealth, which then leads to the exploitation of the less powerful and less wealthy. Marx viewed capitalism as a good thing, for the most part. Capitalism is what keeps societies working together to make a whole.
Durkheim too thought that societies were held together by the dependence that each person had on others. In the days of old many would bake their own bread, sew their own clothes, as well as grow their own vegetable and...