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Complementarite Technique Et, Complementarite Esthetique Essay

3421 words - 14 pages

Complementarite Technique et, Complementarite Esthetique

Résumé: Outre l’éducation éthique, il existe aussi, selon le mot de Schiller, une ‘éducation esthétique de l’humanité’, à laquelle le philosophe peut contribuer. Selon la conception moderne (préparée en réalité dès la scolastique, par Saint Bonaventure notamment), la beauté est appréhendée par l’homme dans et par l’expérience esthétique. La présente étude a pour objet d’étudier une expérience esthétique particulière. La beauté d’un corps naturel ou celle d’un objet technique se révèle à nous dès lors qu’à l’organisation fonctionnelle de ses parties se subsiste un agencement formel de ses mêmes parties, constituées dès lors en parties esthétiques. C’est donc la face, ou plutôt la cause objective de l’expérience esthétique qui est étudiée ici. Mais la notion d’expérience soulève aussi deux autres problèmes qui ne peuvent être examinés faute de place, celui de la disponibilité subjective et celui de la communicativité (plutôt que la communicabilité) de l’expérience esthétique.

Il existe de Saint Augustin un traité qu’il écrivit dans sa jeunesse mais n’acheva pas, ou qui est perdu. Nous connaissons seulement son titre, avec quelques indications sur le contenu. Il s’appelait De pulchro et apto. Dans ce écrit antérieur à sa conversion, Augustin, encore préoccupé de problèmes esthétiques, faisait une comparaison entre ce qui est adapté et ce qui est beau. Il définissait l’adapté comme la qualité de ce qui a de la valeur par rapport à autre chose, à quoi il est subordonné, et le beau comme la qualité de ce qui possède une valeur en soi ou par rapport à soi, et n’est subordonné à rien d’autre. En d’autres termes, ce qui confère à un objet adapté, naturel ou artificiel, sa valeur, c’est la fin qu’il permet d’atteindre, laquelle se trouve donc en dehors de lui-même. Au contraire, ce qui donne sa valeur à un objet beau, qu’il soit naturel ou de fabrication humaine, n’est pas une fin qui se trouve à l’extérieur de lui-même, à laquelle il serait assujetti.(1)

Cette idée deviendra classique dans la philosophie. C’est sur elle notamment que repose la doctrine kantienne du beau. Dans les lignes qui suivent, nous nous proposons de reprendre l’ancienne comparaison, mais au lieu d’opposer simplement objet adapté et objet beau comme deux sortes d’objets différents, nous essaierons de montrer comment une même chose peut recevoir une valeur technique ou une valeur esthétique suivant la façon dont ses parties internes s’organisent. les unes par rapport aux autres.

Complément technique et complément esthétique

Pour commencer, il faut remarquer qu’un objet adapté, par exemple un outil, est toujours constitué de parties discrètes, serait-ce une simple épingle, ayant tête, fût et pointe. En outre, ce qui fait la valeur utile d’un tel objet, c’est évidemment son adaptation à la fin qu’il permet d’atteindre, mais l’adaptation d’un instrument considéré en son tout à la fin à laquelle il est ordonné...

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