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Complete Igcse 2005 Biology Syllabus. Essay

6583 words - 26 pages

The complete Biology Syllabus 2005Section 1 Characteristics and Classification of living organism1.- Reproduce- Feed- Respire- Grow- Excrete- Move- Sensitive- Made out of cells2.Nutrition: FoodExcrete: Faeces of animals, digested left over of food, wasteRespiration: Gaining energy from foodSensitivity: Interaction with nature, feelingsReproduction: Sexual Intercourse, production of a new cell, by union of sperm and egg to form zygoteGrowth: Ability of to reproduce and replace cellsMovement: Ability to move and grow in direction wanted2.1 (missing 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)Extended:Viruses: Parasite, needs other living things to reproduce, inserts into DNA, adapts to environmentBacteria and Fungi: Need water, food, warm temperature and most of them need oxygen to survive.Section 2 Organisations and Maintenance of the Organism1.Cell structureCell wall: ProtectCell surface membrane: ProtectNucleus: Contains DNA, "brain"Nuclear Membrane: To protect the NucleusCytoplasm: Water (70%) many substances dissolve in itMitochondria: Power House of the Cell, aerobic respirationChloroplast: Contains chlorophyll which makes the plant green and absorbs the sunlightVacuole: containing cell sap (food)Ribosome: make proteinsStarch Grain: stores the not need foodSupplement:Similarities:- Cytoplasm- Nucleus- Mitochondria- Endoplasmic reticulum- Ribosome- Surface MembranePlant cell Animal Cell1. Cellulose Wall - No cell wall2. Chlorophyll - No chloroplast3. Large vacuole - small vacuoles4. Starch granules - No starch granules5. Regular shape - irregular shape2. Levels of organism (missing)3. Size of Specimens (missing)4. Movement in and out of cells4.1 Diffusion-Diffusion is along the concentration gradient, for example Co2 is present in the air in a large quantity that is why it is pressed into an area with less concentration e.g. plant.- Gaseous exchange is important to for example breath, because Oxygen is inhaled and Co2 in animals or humans is exhaled. The solute can diffuse into the solvent because water can go through every membrane whereas bigger cells cannot.4.2 Active Transport-Active Transport is a transport where energy (ATP) is required, this is because it is against the concentration gradient so from low to high. E.g. Root hairs force the nitrate ions out of the cell but are still able to take some of them in when they need it. It is important because the plant would die of too less ions if they weren't able to carry out active transport.4.3 Osmosis- Osmosis is the process in which water is forced into a region of lower concentration by the area of higher concentration.- It is important for plants because other unwanted substances will not be able to diffuse through the membrane and so it is assured that only water is obtained. Plants will not die in pure water, whereas animal cells burst in pure water, and in concentrated solution they shrink.- (Missing) Water potential gradient)5. Enzymes- Catalyst speed up a metabolic reaction- Biological Enzymes speed up a...

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