Government of Tamilnadu First Edition - 2005
Chairman Syllabus Committee Dr. Balagurusamy E, Former Vice Chancellor, Anna University, Chennai
Co-Ordinator Textbook Writing Dr. Sankaranarayanan V, Director, Tamil Virtual University, Chennai
Authors Dr. Gopal T V, Anna University, Chennai Ms. Rukmini K, Padma Seshadri Bala Bhavan, Chennai Dr. Sankaranaraynan V, Director, Tamil Virtual University, Chennai
Reviewers Dr. Gopal T V, Anna University, Chennai Ms. Vasanthi Krishnakumar, M/s Sify Limited, Chennai
Copy-Editor Ms. Subha Ravi, Director, M/s Digiterati Consultancy Pvt. Ltd,Chennai
Price Rs. :
This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu
This book has been printed on 70 G.S.M. Paper
FOREWORD "In human affairs we have reached a point where the problems that we must solve are no longer solvable without the aid of computers. I fear not computers but the lack of them"
Computers are machines that can help us solve complex scientific, business and administrative problems. They have helped automation of many industrial and business systems. However, we must remember that they are machines, created and managed by men. They have no brain of their own. Anything they do is the result of human instructions. They carry out the instructions obediently as long as the instructions can be executed using the available hardware, no matter whether they are right or wrong. That is, computers lack common sense.
Computers need clear instructions to tell them what to do, how to do, and when to do. The way of providing such instructions to computers is called programming. The language used in construction and communication of these instructions is known as a programming language.
There are over 200 programming languages currently in use. Some were designed for scientific use, some for commercial applications while some others were meant for more general-purposes . A programming language should have features that would facilitate programmers in making and designing the solution steps easily.
We have already learned the C language, which is a procedure- oriented language. As the name implies, the emphasis was on solution procedures. C is a powerful general-purpose language. This volume presents the advanced version of C know as C++. C++ supports a totally new concept of object-oriented programming (OOP) and therefore it is classified as an object-oriented technology. We chose C++ because it has become an industry-standard OOP language today.
In OOP languages such as C++, the emphasis is on the entities of the physical world called objects. These objects may represent a person, a car, a table of data, or any item that the program must handle. We human beings normally look at real-life problems as a collection of distinct objects and try to solve them taking into account the relationship among the objects. In a similar way, in C++, programming problems are analyzed in terms...