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Computer Operations Paper

1003 words - 4 pages

IntroductionComputers are an electronic device used for data processing, store and produce an output to the user. Based on the functionalities of the computer, the hardware components can be classified into four main units. Input Unit, Output Unit, Central Processing Unit, Memory Unit. These units are interconnected by minute electrical wires to permit communication between them. This allows the computer to function as a system.Input UnitA computer uses input devices to accept the data and program. Input devices allow communication between the user and computer. In modern computers keyboard, mouse, light pen, touch screen etc are some of the input devices.Output UnitSimilar to input devices, output devices have an interface between the computer and the user. These devices take machine coded output results from the processor and convert them into a form that can be used by human beings. In modern computers, monitors and printers are the commonly used output devices.Central Processing UnitCPU is the brain of any computer system. It is just like the human brain that takes all major decisions, makes all sort of calculations and directs different parts of the computer function by activating and controlling the operation. It consists of arithmetic and logic units, control unit and internal memory (registers). The control unit of the CPU coordinates the action of the entire system. Programs (software) provide the CPU, a set of instruction to follow and perform a specific task. Between any two components of the computer system, there is a pathway called bus which allow for the data transfer between them.Control unit controls all the hardware operations, i.e., those of input units, output units, memory unit and the processor. The arithmetic and logic units in computers are capable of performing addition, subtraction, division and multiplication as well as some logical operations. The instructions and data are stored in the main memory so that the processor can be directly fetch and execute them.Memory UnitIn the main memory, the computer stores the program and data that are currently being used. Since the computers use the stored program concept, it I necessary to store the program and data in the main memory before processing.The main memory holds data and program only temporarily. Hence there is a need for storage devices to provide backup storage. They are called secondary storage devices or auxiliary memory devices. Secondary storage devices can hold more storage than main memory and is much less expensive.Hardware and SoftwareA computer system has two major components, hardware and software. In practice, the term hardware refers to all the physical items associated with a computer system. Software is a set of instructions, which enables the hardware to perform a specific task.Computer HardwareA computer is a machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), and process it into useful information (output). It also stores data for later reuse...

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