Computer science dates back to about 1960, although the electronic digital computer that was the object of its study was invented only two decades earlier. The field of science has grown extensively due to the development of the computer. Computers have moved into every nook and cranny of our daily lives. People use them in education, retailing, law enforcement, transportation, agriculture, homes, medicine, and an endless number of other areas. Scientists have to develop new programs and methods of repair for these computers (Development).
Charles Babbage developed the theory for the first computer in 1830. He called it an analytical engine. He designed it to perform many kinds of calculations. However, he never built it before he died. Another developer of the computer was Herman Hollerith. He designed a machine to calculate the 1890 census. Finally, in the late 1930s, the first digital computer that worked electronically was developed and called the ABC, or the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. Dr. John Mauchly used the principles of the Atanasoff-Berry computer to develop the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). This was the first general-purpose computer. The ENIAC was the forerunner of the UNIVAC I computer, or the first computer sold on a commercial basis (Sample).
Since Babbage built the first computer, there was a need for a computer programmer for the computer to run. The first programmer was Augusta Byron. She programmed Charles Babbage’s analytical engine. Since then programming has come a long way. The industry has developed five different languages. One of the first languages to be developed was FORTRAN, an acronym for FORmula TRANslation. In 1957, scientists developed FORTRAN for translating scientific formulas into a computer-readable form (Bronson and Menconi).
Scientists developed a simpler language for business applications. They developed COBAL, an acronym for Common Business Oriented Language, to satisfy the basic needs of businesses. This is because businesses usually deal in whole numbers or dollar and cents data accurate to only two decimal places. These applications require simpler mathematical calculations than are needed for scientific applications (Bronson and Menconi).
Teaching students the basics of programming has a unique factor that forced scientists to develop a third and forth language. Scientists designed these languages to be straightforward and easy to understand. In the 1960s, Dartmouth College developed the BASIC language. Basic is ideal for creating small, easily developed, interactive programs. The acronym BASIC stands for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Scientists developed Pascal in the late 1970s to provide students with a firmer foundation in modular and structured programming than could be provided by BASIC. Scientists named the Pascal language after the mathematician Blaise Pascal (Bronson and Menconi).
Scientists developed the language...