Computers And Artificial Intelligence Essay

945 words - 4 pages

Recent researches in computer technology are tending to separate the final users-humans-from the computerized programming. The final user, proceeding from his applied engineering knowledge and experience, develops, for instance, a pre-conceptual draft of a future engineering system, choosing a set of units and means of integrating them into a system. The analyst using his knowledge of applied mathematics and of a meticulous study of the subject matter, develops mathematical models of the system and, formulates problems subject to computer-aided solution. In other words, the analyst reformulates the description of the system at the subject level into a description of this system at the mathematical level.Further, the programmer, having received the task from the mathematician and using his specialist knowledge, studies the essence of the mathematical models and the problems, thus reformulating the latter from the mathematical to the software terms. Next, the programmes are fed into the computer, which automatically translates from the high-level languages into the machine codes.This is the only automatic translation of the three. Therefore the preparation of trade-off studies becomes exceedingly dragged out. Now the solution of the entire problem of the development of new technology as a whole, depends upon toning up the slow response of our design systems to the interests of the final user. And it is inevitable in the case of any research and development that a certain correction is always required. The design period is very much longer than the time spent on purely calculatory operations. Therefore the final aim of developing new information technology is .the automation of transfer from the subject level to the mathematical one on to the software.The establishment of such design technology consists in the gradual ousting of the intermediaries between the computer and* the final user. The first step in this direction was the emergence of data bases together with the systems of their control. The programme debugging grew literally hundreds of times faster. In the meantime, it is the most wearying process, since at the programme writing stage human imperfection inevitable breeds error, which drags out the preparation and comparison of trade-off studies-the main stage of designing. Now the programmer can store up a library of debugged programmes or their parts-programme modules-to form working programmes on their basis.The designing of engineering systems proceeds as follows: In keeping with the general requirements of the system, individual units are computer-calculated (which can be carried out even in different organizations). Then they are harmonized, or matched and, with the aid of crude models, the properties of the entire system are determined. If its characteristics are for some reason found unsatisfactory, the units are recalculated, and the matching is repeated until an acceptable result is obtained. Such is the functional pattern of the...

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