I. CONCENTRIC ZONE THEORY
Burgess’s concentric zone theory was presented in 1924. He presented a descriptive urban land use model that divided cities in a set of concentric circles expanding from downtown to the suburbs. His representation came from Burgess’ observations of various American cities, especially Chicago. Burgess model assumes a relationship between the socio-economic status of households and the distance from the Central Business District. The further from the district, the better the quality of housing, but the longer the commuting time. Making this Accessing better housing is done at the expense of longer commuting times and costs as well. According to Burgess, urban growth is a process of expansion and reconversion of land uses, with a tendency of each inner zone to expand in the outer zone. According to Burgess’ theory, a large city is divided in six concentric zones, Burgess’s model has its cons according to critics. It is said to be a product of its time. That is, it won’t work the same with present cities. The model was developed when American cities were growing very fast and when motorized transportation was still uncommon as most people used public transit. Thus the concept cannot be applied to those from the second half to the twentieth century where highways have enabled urban development to escape the reconversion process and to take place directly in the suburbs. The model in this case was developed for American cities and is limited elsewhere.
Zone1: Central Business District
Zone one is basically the economic and geographic center of the city. It is commonly referred to as downtown or city center. The central business district is typically at or near the oldest part of the city and is often near a major transportation route that provided the site for the city's location, such as a river, railroad, or highway. The center of the zone was the retail shopping district. Consumption oriented commercial activities tended to locate at the very core of the central business district.
Zone2:Zone In Transition
Zone of transition is the area between the factory zone and the working class zone in the concentric zone model of urban structure. It was the point of entry where immigrants received their first vie of the city. This zone encircles the central business district and it includes a zone of assimilation where the buildings are being drawn into central business district usage. There may also be a zone of degradation where the buildings are changing from central business district usage to residential land use. The zone in transition was known as an area of high crime rates and social disorganization. It was the main point of entry for immigrants
Zone3: Working People’s Homes
This area settled by second generation families, the children of the immigrants. In the United States, the term has the additional connotation of impoverished black and/or Hispanic neighborhoods. . The term is often a euphemism applied to the...