Conceptual relativism is concerned with truth and knowledge and belongs specifically with the ability of the human mind to construct different realities, people have different versions of realities but there is no one reality as is the same with truth there is no one absolute truth there are only truths. (Lazar 1998)Many authors have described the nature of this in their own languages and this has bought about many different views of conceptual relativism. It was Daniel Little’s belief that conceptual relativism was concerned with the fact that as the world is separated into so many different countries, cultures, religions and beliefs. It would not be possible to only have one theory on the structure of everything inside the world, for all individuals think differently, how can one theory be more plausible than another. (Lazar 1998) Peter Winch had a more radical view and argued that Science had absolutely nothing to do with explanations on what existed. He stated that human beings are more than just physical objects and that if human action was not being understood from the inside, how could the social sciences understand human action at all. He went on to say that the majority of sociology was not in fact a science it was a masked type of philosophy. Winch’s claims against the social sciences caused problems and some ethnomethodological sociologists changed the way they studied society and developed a non scientific route. (Lock 2010)However rationalists such as Popper reject the idea of relativism as he believed that unless all individuals shared the same framework of basic knowledge, there could never be agreements made. (Benton 2001)
From a conceptual relativism viewpoint Philosophers can give their opinions regarding specific issues but there is no guarantee to ensure whether their observations are based on experience or on literature read by them. Sociologists would evaluate their views with either the reference of religion, beliefs or social norms. It is essentially true that different people see the world differently and there is no objection in thinking different than others. (Ekman 2002)Thus, Conceptual relativism terminology enables the individual to conceive reality as per their own views. However it has been observed that human beings start practicing a specific behaviour that they think suitable with their environment.
Thus, Radical social constructionism is the self created concept of human beings. (Lock 2010)Radical social constructionism is primarily concerned with the idea that a variety of phenomena’s are socially constructed and is linked with the idea of radical anti-realism in relation to reality and the validity of science. If the validity of science is in question then this brings about a problem for gender science as this theory would believe that biology does not account for our gender and that gender is highly dependable on the social constructs of historical and social process.( Gil-White 2001)