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Conceptualization And The Perception Of Corruption

904 words - 4 pages

It is commonly known that corruption exists in many different countries. Each country has different levels and forms of corruption. The article conceptualizes corruption into two major categories as well as explaining the importance of the perception of corruption. The two major categories of corruption as stated in the article are everyday corruption which includes bribery to officials and business corruption which include state, business, and administrative corruption. The article mainly focuses on the perception of corruption because it is believed, measuring perception of corruption is another way to measure the actual corruption at the regional level as well as federal level. In addition, the article explains the different matters that affect the perception of corruption. In Russia, the freedom of the press, competitive elections, and the economic developments are matters that affect the perception of corruption.
Having corruption specifically political corruption does matter because it undermines the government. To explain why such corruption matters to countries, in this case Russia, the article provide the results of the studies conducted of the perception of corruption in Russia. Based on the results, having an incredibly competitive election is linked to having more corruption performed by the candidates in order to skew the results or by people who desperately want a certain party to win. An example of corruption performed by candidates is providing false information and other negative advertisements distributed in newspapers or journals. Candidates have also managed to steal votes from their competitor by methods like changing names and passports. In other words, political corruption is conceptually the dirty tricks and manipulation of candidates and officials of the government. Having political corruption affects the trust the citizens have on the candidates and officials. Furthermore, the trust given to the elites are also being undermined because of political corruption. Undermining the government and the elites affects voter turnout and the how the citizens view the performance of the elites.
In regards to freedom of the press and economic development, each has a major role in the perception of corruption and should be of importance to Russia. In a country where there is total freedom of the press, citizens are informed of corruptions at both the regional and federal level. The citizens are being informed of the acts of corruption hence the high level of perception of corruption. However, in Russia it may seem as if there is freedom of press, but in reality, it’s not the government restricting the press, but large, significant interest groups and businesses control the press. The article explains that the press has become an instrument for the political and business sponsors or owners to enhance their interests. Thus, the amount of freedom...

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