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Constitutional Revolutions Of Iran And Turkey In The 19th Century.

1463 words - 6 pages

The Young Turk and Iranian Constitutional Revolutions occurred during a period of transformation. Transformation not only from the nineteenth to the twentieth centuries, but also a transformation of society. For the Ottomans, the nineteenth century was the age of the European empires, many of whom influenced and manipulated the society. The result would be a Middle Eastern country emulating European society. This influence was not evident in Iran and those who held power would dictate the course of reform. The Young Turk Constitutional Revolution was the result of Tanzimat and "western" ideologies, imbedded in the cultural and social fabric of society, as opposed to the Iranian Constitutional Revolutions, which occurred as a result of individual and powerful groups with much to gain from a revolution. The Tanzimat ideology, although absent from the mentality of the Sultan, was inscribed in the political, social, and cultural aspect of Ottoman Empire, resulting in a movement to reinstate many of the reforms back into society.The era of the Tanzimat spanned a period of 37 years (1829-1876) and was marked with a long series of reforms aimed at "westernizing" the society. Members of the Tanzimat bureaucracy (often educated in Europe) admired the technological, political, and social advances of European nations and would attempt to adopt this form of society as part of the Ottoman Empire. The Tanzimat realized that these reforms could not be implemented without general support from the public. In order for the reforms to be accepted, the Tanzimat would need to manipulate the mentality of the people to admire and praise "western" societies. This was done through a general introduction of European culture by use of translated European books and through Literacy movements. The result would be a mass translation of European books, literacy movements that would allow the public to read about the cultures in newspapers, and a general introduction of the empire to the European culture.During the time of the Tanzimat, those educated in Europe would be given preference in the appointment of bureaucratic positions. These men had experienced "western culture" first hand and were therefore loyal to the Tanzimat. By the time of the revolution, the Tanzimat no longer held the caliphate position but none the less maintained a great deal of power within the bureaucracy. These men would oppose the reforms of Abdul Hamid II and maintained the political support to force Abdul Hamid to reinstate the Constitution of 1876.By the end of the nineteenth century, the Tanzimat's "westernizing" reforms would not only be desired but necessary to meet the demands of society. Educational policy, both domestically and those sent abroad, would result in an increase of professionals who required European technologies and knowledge. Hospitals and manufacturing plants were demanded and those in power would need to open communication and commerce channels with Europe to supply these...

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