Gondwana was the biggest continental crust unit on earth for more than two hundred million years. It took its shape at approximately 600 Ma during the Early Paleozoic, end of the Pan-African- Brasiliano orogeny and found to be in the southern hemisphere between at about the same time of formation (Trompette, 2000).
Gondwana was built of almost all of the landmass, nowadays found in southern hemisphere containing Africa, Australia, Antarctica, South America, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula and India subcontinent. The later two landmasses mentioned have moved into the northern hemisphere. Furthermore, Florida and most of Central America, southern Europe and much of south-central and southeastern Asia all were parts of Gondwana at different times (Cocks, et al., 2013). North China, South China, Tarim and Annamia might also have been primary parts of Gondwana during the latest Precambrian. Even the large continents of Baltica and Siberia were very close to the superterrane in Late Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic times (Cocks, et al., 2013).
The Austrian geologist, Eduard Suess, invented the term, Gondwanaland, after the Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations in the Gondwana area of the center of India, where the Gonds lived. These formations are similar to those of the same age on the Southern Hemisphere (Trompette, 2000).
Gondwana developed due to the impact of three lithospheric plates produced as cause of the split of the Rodinia supercontinent, at about 1000 and 700 Ma, end of the Mesoproterozoic to the beginning of the Neoproterozoic (Trompette, 2000).
Three orogeny events occurred during the formation of Gondwana, namely, East African Orogeny (800-650 Ma), Brasiliano Orogeny and Kuunga Orogeny. The two last events overlap in time, 600-530, (Meert, 2000). There is more information available on the break-up of Gondwana than there is on its assembly, which is due to absence of paleomagnetic records to assist building of continental movement. However, Gondwana’s formation has been linked to the break-up of Rodinia (Meert, 2000).
Apart from knowledge of palaeomagnetic poles for the constituent cratonic masses, this includes the component lithofacies, the gross crustal architecture, the geometry of the major fault and shear zones as well as the thermal and temporal aspects of deformation, metamorphism and magmatism.
There are three events of orogeny that resulted the construction of Gondwana, namely, East African (650-800Ma), Brasiliano (660-530Ma) and Kuunga Orogeny (550Ma). East African and Kuunga belts developed from impacts of Africa and the East Gondwana blocks and the Brasiliano belts evidence the impacts of the African nuclei and the South American cratonic nuclei (Meert and Van Der Voo, 1997).
Oldest orogeny, the East-African, formed the Mozambique Belt and developed due to the merging of arc terranes on the north of Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental impact of East African fragments and...