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Contaminación Atmosférica En La Troposfera Essay

2852 words - 11 pages

Contaminación atmosférica en la TroposferaINTRODUCCIÓN. La contaminación atmosférica.El aire es un recurso natural, renovable, constituido por una mezcla de gases con composición relativamente constante. Desde la aparición del ser humano sobre la Tierra, y sobre todo debido a la actividad desarrollada por este en los últimos doscientos años, concretamente coincidiendo con la revolución industrial, la composición de aire ha variado profundamente, hablándose de contaminación atmosférica, que puede ser general cuando afecta a un área amplia, o urbana cuando se da en una gran población.La contaminación es la "presencia en el aire de gases, materia o fuente de energía con génesis natural, o antrópica, que conlleva riesgos para personas, animales, plantas o el patrimonio artístico cultural" (Ley 38/1972. 2., de 22 de diciembre, de Protección del Ambiente Atmosférico), aunque el concepto de contaminación atmosférica debe ser aplicado exclusivamente a la producida por la actividad humana, porque hay otra, que se puede llamar contaminación natural, que es perfectamente asumida por los sistemas de regeneración natural del propio sistema atmosférico.Algunas de las fuentes antropogénicas de contaminación atmosférica son las centrales térmicas, que utilizan combustibles fósiles, las refinerías, la minería, las industrias químicas, etc.Los principales contaminantes atmosféricos se clasifican en:Contaminantes principales o primarios. Aquellos que se generan en las actividades antrópicas, normalmente de combustión, principalmente en estado gaseoso, aunque sin descartar las partículas sólidas. Ejemplos de contaminantes primarios son: SO2, SO, CO, CO2, NOX y derivados de hidrocarburos.Contaminantes especiales o secundarios. Habitualmente derivados de reacciones químicas secundarias producidas entre los contaminantes primarios y los componentes característicos de la atmósfera, como puede ser el vapor de agua, o aquellos otros formados directamente en las actividades industriales citadas antes, pero con composiciones químicas peculiares. Los ejemplos de contaminantes secundarios podrían ser: SO3, H2SO4, sulfuro de carbono, cloruros de azufre, o derivados del nitrógeno, como amoniaco, ácido nítrico, cianógeno y ácido clorhídrico.Los principales problemas ambientales atmosféricos son:La contaminación atmosférica urbana o local.El agujero de la capa de ozono.El efecto invernadero y el consiguiente calentamiento global.La lluvia ácida, como contaminación atmosférica transfronteriza.LA TROPOSFERAEsta capa de la atmósfera se extiende desde la superficie de la tierra...

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