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Comparison Of Civilizations In The Ancient World

1072 words - 4 pages

Early civilization consisted of core values that defined the communities that resided within it. These communities were driven by numerous factors in which would decide the overall outcome of the civilization. Geography, social and economic values, and they’re culture all played an important role in the makeup of these civilizations.
Mesopotamia was a successful farming community early on. Utilizing the Tigris and Euphrates rivers this community was able to create a successful way of farming through the use of irrigation and drainage ditches (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2010). Once the use of irrigation became large scale and widely used it was possible to support a larger community base and thus encouraged expansion throughout the civilization. Mesopotamians were able to import and export goods by land and by sea to the Mediterranean in the west and India to the east. With the introduction of the wheel Mesopotamians exported goods such as woolen textiles, pottery, and metal work while importing copper, tin, and timber (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2010). Communities of Mesopotamia contained a diverse selection of people that consisted of: elites, dependent commoners, free commoners, and slaves. With the belief that gods and goddesses owned the cities making up the civilization, Mesopotamians built a prominent temple that was normally placed on top of what is called a ziggurat (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2010). Since the Mesopotamians believed in the gods or goddesses control of the cities their civilization formed a theocracy. It was believed that a favorable relationship with the gods determined the success of Mesopotamia which made the class of priests highly important. The presence of famines resulting from floods, high winds and humidity convinced the Mesopotamians that their world was controlled by gods and goddesses which formed the belief similar to polytheism (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2010). Discovery of clay tablets inscribed with cuneiform proved that the Mesopotamian civilization were able to communicate through written pictures and stylized signs, this was used for purpose of record keeping and schools to teach cuneiform.
Egyptian civilization was born from the vast and unique Nile River. This river provided the rich “Black Land” soil that was the foundation for agriculture (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2010). Although there was no need for irrigation as in Mesopotamia, Egyptians were able to provide an abundance of foods for their civilization base. The Nile River not only provided land perfect for farming it was also used as a mode of transportation for the Egyptians enabling the trade of imports and exports. Due to natural barriers in the geography and the strategic use of fortifications, Egyptians were able to create a secure way of life protected from invasion. This way of life was organized hierarchical lines with a god-king at the top (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2010). The ruling class consisted of nobles and priests who assisted the god-king and ran the...

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