This essay discusses the radical transformation of the principles and foundations of public administration from traditional to New Public Management. Firstly the essay will attempt to define the key terms of traditional public administration and the doctrine of New Public Management. Rabin J. (2003) explains that New Public Management embodies “a process in public administration that uses information and experiences obtained in business management and other disciplines to improve efficiency, usefulness and general operation of public services in contemporary bureaucracies.“Traditional Public Administration progresses from governmental contributions, with services perceived by the bureaucracy.
According to Sapru R.K. (2008) p370-371 the traditional ideal of public administration which inclined to be firm and bureaucratic was based on processes instead of outcomes and on setting procedures to follow instead of focusing on results. This paradigm can be regarded as an administration under formal control of the political control, constructed on a firmly ranked model of bureaucracy, run by permanent and neutral public servants, driven only by public concern. In emerging nations the administration was true bureaucracy meaning government by officers. In this perspective Smith (1996) p235-6 perceived that“the bureaucracy controls and manages the means of production through the government. It increases chances for bureaucratic careers by the creation of public figures,demanding public managers, marketing boards.
Sapru R.K. (2008) P370 argues that New Public Management (NPM) is a new model of public sector management which emerged in the beginning of the 1990 in response to the challenges of globalization, global competitiveness and technical adjustment. It is claimed that it embodies a paradigm change from a traditional model of public administration, prevailing for most of the 20th century to managerialism or what is popularly known as New Public Management. This new method shows a variation in the role of government and bureaucracy in society and the relationship between government and citizens.
According to United Nations (2006) p3 within living memory it used to be fairly simple and straight forward to define the administrative state, to define the public sector, to differentiate public administration and to identify the profession of government as consisting of trained and experienced public administrators who devoted their working lives to running public organizations. However given the rapidity and scope of ongoing changes in most cultures, public administration is beneath a huge deal of pressure to adjust and innovate just to keep the pace with growing. Rabin J, (2003) p813 strains that in the last decade we have witnessed an ongoing debate between scholars and practitioners of public administration on the best way to rentalise and renew old style bureaucracies. Present public administration has been advised to innovate and reform...