Convict Life And Punishments In Australia

1507 words - 6 pages

Who were the Convicts?The late 18th century was a period of immense social and political change. In Britain the industrial revolution had driven thousands of country folk below the poverty line to the cities. This created a new underclass dependent on crime which resulted in the prisons overflowing. In 1787 the British government urgently needed a solution to the problems of the growing prison population. They came up with a solution to send the prisoners to Botany Bay, Australia. It wasn't the ideal choice as the place had only been glimpsed once on Captain Cook's expedition and the 15,000 mile voyage would take over 8 months. Nevertheless between 1788 1868, 165,000 British and Irish convicts made the journey to the unknown land, Australia.The Majority of the 165,000 convicts transported to Australia were poor and illiterate victims of Poor Laws and Social conditions. 8 out of 10 convicts were convicted for some kind of theft. The average age of the convicts was 26, which included children ho were either convicted of crimes or just making the journey with their mothers. 15% of the convicts were women or 1 woman for every 6 people. During the first 40 years of transportation convicts were sentenced to terms of 7 years, 10 years and life. However they could be pardoned earlier if they were exceptionally well behaved. A man with a seven year sentence could apply for his ticket of leave after four years of proven good behaviour; a man sentenced to 14 years could do so after 6 years and a man sentenced to life could apply after 8 years. Sentences could also be shortened through exceptional services such as spying on his mates or catching an escapee.Convict LifeConvict life was harsh, it was neither pleasant nor easy. The work was hard, discipline was severe, accommodation was rough and the food was unappetising let alone adequate, many convicts found relief in alcohol. However the sense of community offered small comforts when convicts met up with their mates back home or who had been transported on the same ship for example.Male convicts were brought ashore a day or so after their convoy landed arrival. They were marched up to the Government Lumber Yard where they were stripped, washed, inspected and had their vital statistics recorded. If convicts were found to be skilled, for example carpenters, blacksmiths or stonemasons, then they were retained and employed on a government works plan. Otherwise they were assigned to hard labour work or given to the property of settlers, merchants or farmers who may once have been convicts themselves.Convicts who were assigned to labour work worked in full irons and chains in an attempt to prevent escapees and on the roughest and most gruelling tasks; clearing bush, cutting and hauling timber over the rugged terrain. Chain gangs had the most gruelling task of the lot, working from dawn to dusk, they cleared roads through steep ranges and split rocks to pave them. The lucky few who were skilled in a profession...

Find Another Essay On Convict Life and Punishments in Australia

Class and Poverty in Australia Essay

2164 words - 9 pages . Secondly, class shapes the quality of a person's life. Thirdly, class inequality produces continuing class differences into the next generation. Finally, class has becoming a debate in Australian society, because class inequality encourages the `right' people to work more efficiently in the workforce and helps people to identify themselves in society, but continuing relevance of the concept of class is a matter in contemporary Australia. First

Presidentialism in Britain and Australia Essay

2249 words - 9 pages Presidentialism in Britain and AustraliaExamine the "presidentialisation" of parliamentary electoral politics in Britain and Australia. What are the implications vis-a-vis party politics and party-oriented politics?A large proportion of what is called politics in both Australia and Britain is identified with political parties. The system demands it; you can not be Prime Minister without your party having a majority in the Lower House. However

Childhood and Socialisation in Australia

530 words - 2 pages George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). Agents of Socialization: In Australian culture, socialization occurs through various agents, and due to Australia being so multicultural and diverse, the importance of each of these agents is different from individual to individual. „X     Family ¡V For most children, the family is the epicenter of socialization and is the most important factor in how the child

Bilingualism and Multiliteracies in Australia

1374 words - 5 pages This essay will demonstrate the research that is implemented on children with bilingual ability; discussing three main issues in bilingualism which is: the maintaining children’s first language, social and cognitive benefits, also why bilingualism should be in cooperated into school programming/curriculum. Bilingualism can be defined as the ability to speak and/or write in two languages. In Australia English is the main language although in

Islam and Christianity in Australia

859 words - 3 pages Muhammad and other prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. But it was considered that all that was revealed to Muhammad was the final and ultimate revelation.Muhammad was orphaned at six years of age, adopted by his Uncle Abu and later married wife Kahdijah. Muhammad resented the corruption and injustice in Mecca and the world, so as an act against it he left his life, family and friends behind to go off and spend alone in a cave

Climate change in australia What is climate change? How will it affect life in Australia?

1343 words - 5 pages which has a huge impact on Australian life, all of these have economic consequences. Australia is currently suffering climate changes effects such as droughts, water shortages, cyclones and effects of El Niño.Ecosystem means a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment, this is a definition from The Macquarie dictionary the meaning of this is that every living thing depends in some way

What are the "crimes" committed in "The Scarlet Letter" by Nathaniel Hawthorne and how are they punished? In your opinion, how "just" are these punishments?

1051 words - 4 pages The expression “crime does not pay” lies at the heart of much literature and is present in many films as well as in everyday life. True to the expression, in most novels, criminals are eventually punished, even for crimes that are nowadays not considered wrong. However they do not always receive a fair punishment. I believe this is to make the story more attention-grabbing and to arouse the reader’s sympathy and pity for the

Religious and Belief Systems in Australia

1038 words - 4 pages in Australia are coming from a broader range of cultures and religious backgrounds. There used to be a time when most people stuck with the religion that their parents followed. These days more people are choosing denominational switching. This means that many people are no longer making life long commitments to one church in particular. They are more likely to go wherever they feel comfortable and look for a church that suits their needs.New

Comparison Between Sculpture in Kuwait and Australia

1180 words - 5 pages Comparison between Sculpture in Kuwait and Australia Research Objectives There have been significant differences between the sculptures in Kuwait and those in Australia. The research will evaluate the weaknesses in Kuwait sculptures in terms of funds accessible, available galleries and the public awareness on this artistic works. In addition, the research will evaluate ways of strengthening the sculptures in Kuwait. Synopsis The difference

Climate Change and Air Pollution in Australia

1215 words - 5 pages Climate Change and Air Pollution in Australia Air Pollution Fortunately for Alice Springs and much of the Northern Territory, its remote location and low population density mean that the city is not a large source of air pollution. In fact, in a report issued by the Northern Territory Minister of Infrastructure, Planning, and Environment, it is said that while doing testing for the National Environmental Protection

Australia in its Regional and Global Contexts!

930 words - 4 pages close cooperation with AusAID and Department of Treasury and the Department of Finance and Administration. This cooperation has enabled Australian officials to work with their government in Solomon Islands to meet its security and economic needs. Australians involvement has also encouraged them to plan for long-term improvement in law and order, economic management, political governance and basic service delivery.In Tonga, Australia has placed an

Similar Essays

Reborn Refugees In Australia And Best Life In Australia.

570 words - 2 pages their own safety but more than that, they fear for Alem's safety. And so his father brought him to Australia, his knew that Australia is the most safest country in the hole world, so that he could leave him there, trusting in Blighty's capacity to care for war refugees, especially children. And largely, yes, Alem does receive care from Australia culture and learn there culture too. The hotel owner contacts the Refugee Council and Social Services

Australia In The 1950s And Aboriginal Life.

502 words - 2 pages of life. There was fear that immigration would create unemployment.Throughout the 1950s unemployment was low, rarely rising above 2%. Wages were lower than today, but life was also much simpler and cheaper than today.Unfamiliar migrants and the low cost of living were only two aspects of life in the 1940s and 1950s that are unrecognisable to us today.From the first European settlement, Australia was viewed by colonists and evolutionists as terra

Pluralism And Diversity In Australia Essay

1103 words - 4 pages in creating a global village has changed the way religions contact followers and converts. In the present day, people descended from all backgrounds and numerous faiths populate Australia.BibliographyBouma, G.D. Mosques and Muslims in Australia, A.G.P.S, Canberra, 1994, pp.16-21 & 105-112.Religious Affiliation, Office of Multicultural Interests, Government of Western Australia, 2001 [online], Available: Australian life of Federation, An illustrated Chronicle. A, Cremin, UNSW Press 2001. University of NSW, Sydney.Ryan, M. and Goldburg, P. Recognising Religion, Social Science Press 2001, Katoomba, NSW.

Media In Australia And Indonesia Essay

1620 words - 6 pages illustrates the country side living condition which sticks in Australian life. Another TV series such as home and away and neighbor which are considered carrying Australian culture in terms of free minded thinking and showing the outdoor life rather than indoor. Also the centrality of sports in Australian life would be one such influence (Cunningham & Jacka 1996 : 55). Today broadcast TV in Australia carries about 4000 hours or more of sports per annum