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Convincing Outcomes From Sensitizing The Wistar Strain Rats Used As Peanut Allergy Model

724 words - 3 pages

Hypersensitivity to foods, are widespread immune pathologies, in many cases, with an
acute onset of symptoms following ingestion and typically, mediated by IgE-antibodies1
(Type І/Allergic reactions). Food-specific IgE antibodies arm Effector cells; Tissue Mast
cells and Blood Basophils, a state termed Sensitization. Subsequent exposure to the same
allergenic food leads to the release of a whole host of chemical mediators through the effector
cells degranulation, amongst them histamine is assumed as the most important mediator that
can cause all the pathological characteristics of allergic diseases.2,3,4
Differently from other food allergies such as eggs and cow’s milk, PEANUT ALLERGY
is not often outgrown. Contrary to their appearance and name, peanuts (Arachis hypogaea)
are not indeed a nut; they are a species in the legume/bean family. Even though peanuts and
tree-nuts originate from separate families, they have both been known to contain potent
allergens, with a US study reporting peanut and tree-nut allergy to specifically, be responsible
for 90% of the IgE-mediated, deathful anaphylactic reactions.5 Widespread use of peanut
proteins, along with the evident epidemic increase in the prevalence rate of peanut allergy
especially during the last (some) two decades, has generated great concerns respecting the
necessity of comprehensive surveys in this scope.6,7
In spite of our increased understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms involved in
food allergy in recent years, there is still, no specific therapeutic/curative option available.
Currently, strict avoidance and the use of adrenaline in the event of an accidental exposure
are the only proven treatments.
Irrespective of several forms of immunotherapy are presently under investigation
including oral (OIT), sublingual (SLIT), epicutaneous (EPIT), and subcutaneous allergenspecific
immunotherapy (SCIT),8,9 it is much to be regretted that, the high risk of possible
anaphylaxis is a major factor limiting the development of peanut allergy-immunotherapy in
humans.8,10 In this regard, animal models may play an important role in providing a platform
for refining these treatment polices and ensuring thorough preclinical evaluation of their
safety, prior to therapeutic humankind applications.
Certainly, while in-vitro and...

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