The paper outlines the use of GIS in road transportation including how the system has evolved over time in the transportation sector. GIS applications require specialized expertise to ensure an accurate collection, analysis, and relay of road network data. It is important to note that GIS systems can be applied in a variety of places within the road network. However, only three places are discussed in the paper: traffic density, vehicle emissions, and road capacity. GIS technology helps in the collection and dispersion of the necessary traffic information to optimize road usage.
GIS is regarded as an advanced technology that integrates other kinds of know-how using geographical data or information. The concept is a very powerful and effective technology, as it allows geographers to utilize their data and techniques in a way that merges traditional methods, including map overlay analysis, with more advanced modern methods to produce improved systems (Mavoa, Witten, McCranor & O’Sullivanc 2012, p. 17). Through GIS, geographers and engineers can effectively model, map, query, and evaluate large quantities of information kept in a single database. GIS is gaining popularity in road transportation where it provides effective and valuable expertise and equipment for managing vehicles during traffic. The technology provides a means for managing road transport by way of spatial reference systems, especially where roads form a convoluted transportation network (Razzak, Khan & Jalal 2011, p. 641).
Traffic density is one of the areas in road transport where GIS technology is applied; the know-how allows highway authorities and other concerned establishments to monitor traffic at critical points along the road network through the use of cameras and other means of data gathering. The authorities then relay the collected information to the authorities, road users, and other relevant parties. The information is also used for analytical purposes and for reasons of improving traffic along particular routes (Ruhe, Thamm, Fornauf & Lorbacher 2013, p. 454).
GIS applications, including traffic control systems, require road engineers and designers to work together in the Intelligent Transportation Systems to control traffic density along road networks where the number of vehicles or pedestrians is high (Razzak, Khan & Jalal 2011, p. 644). To effectively control traffic density, the GIS experts may be required to cover large geographical areas along the roads and interface using many devices to manage the data obtained from various sources. Once the information is collected and analyzed, it is then passed to road users to inform them on which parts to avoid so that they can maintain a uniform traffic density (Racero, Harnandez, Guerrero & Racero 2011, p. 358).
Some GIS companies can also opt to collect up-to-date travel and traffic data, analyze it, and then relay it to the public and private users through electronic means. In this case, the analyzed information is...