Maxillofacial injuries being complex injuries have been associated with a high incidence of head injuries due to the close proximity of the facial skeleton to the brain. It has been proposed that the face protects the brain from injury by acting as a cushion in a manner similar to the airbag protecting the driver involved in a motor vehicle accident. However, the relationship between facial fractures and traumatic brain injury has been controversial. Closed head injury has been defined as “a documented evidence of loss of consciousness and or post-traumatic amnesia in a patient with a non-penetrating head injury.’’
Aims & Objectives
This prospective study aims to identify the ...view middle of the document...
Closed head injury was classified based upon the Glasgow coma scale score as mild, moderate and severe.
The type of closed head injury was also documented i.e cerebral concussion, cerebral contusion, cerebral laceration, membrane hematomas, diffuse axonal injury and Intracranial injuries causing cranial nerve injuries.The statistical analysis was done by using chi-square test using SPSS/PC version 7.0 .
A total of 753 patients presented to the Trauma Centre, Kasturba Hospital during this time period. Ninety-seven patients (12.88%) had maxillofacial injuries out of which 48 patients (49.49%) had maxillofacial fractures. A total of 32 patients had a combination of maxillofacial fractures and associated closed head injury (4%) – (Graph 1). Among patients with all maxillofacial injures, thirty two (33%) had the combined craniofacial injury (Graph 2). Out of the 48 patients who sustained maxillofacial fractures, 32 patients (66.66%) had an associated closed head injury. All patients in our study group were males, with an age range from 16-71 years. The mean age was 35 years. There was a decrease in the incidence with increasing age (Graph 4). A majority of our patients (28) had MF fractures (Graph 5). The Zygomatico-maxillary complex fracture (65.6%) predominated among all facial fractures followed by the maxillary dentoalveolar fractures (18.8%) and Lefort II level fractures (15.6%). (Graph 6).
93.8% had a history of loss of consciousness, 71.9% had amnesia and 34.4% of patients had at least one episode of vomiting following the injury. The majority of patients (81.1%) sustained a mild head injury. The type of brain injury most commonly encountered was cerebral concussion (68.8%) followed by cerebral contusion and extradural hematoma (6.3% each). (Graph 7). Motorcycle/Scooter accidents were the most common cause of the...