Interactions are in Articles 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16
Thesis: Teacher-student relationships develop from daily classroom interactions between teacher and students. The establishment of warm, positive, healthy teacher-student relationships and interactions is crucial to student’s emotional, behavioral, and cognitive development.
According to Allen (2013), improving the quality of teacher-student interactions within the classroom depends upon a solid understanding of the nature of effective teaching for adolescents (p. 77). As cited by Allen (2013), “ Hamre, Pianta, Burchinal, & Downer (2010) developed an assessment approach that organizes features of teacher-student interactions into three major domains: emotional supports, classroom organization, and instructional supports. This approach to assessing classroom interaction qualities has been tested and validated for the grades of prekindergarten to five, with evidence supporting this latent structure of dimensions and domains across grades and across content areas (Allen, 2013, p.77). The Classroom Learning Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) was developed for secondary schools as an upward extension of previous work. Within each domain considered are specific dimensions of classroom interactions that past research suggest are likely to be important to student learning. The qualities of of emotional and relational support is captured via assessments of the dimensions of positive classroom climate, teacher sensitivity, and regard for adolescent perspectives (p. 77).
Allen (2013) noted, the CLASS-S draws upon theoretical and practical approaches in terms of observable, ongoing qualities of teacher-student interactions (p.78). This scoring system focuses on patterns of interaction assessed at a molar level, as opposed to the time-sampling and counting of discrete behaviors as in the Ecobehavioral Assessment Systems Software (p. 78).
One significant potential confound in efforts to identify qualities of effective teacher-student interactions linked to student achievement is the likelihood that high-quality interactions may come more easily among students who are already academically motivated and successful. (Allen, 2013, p. 79). Some qualities of teacher-student interactions may primarily reflect student characteristics as they enter class at the start of the year, particularly to the extent that students are implicitly or explicitly grouped into higher or lower achieving classes (p. 79).
Allen (2013) focused their study using the CLASS-S as the primary source of observational data to identify qualities of teacher-student interactions that are linked to preexisting student characteristics at the beginning of the school year (p. 79). This study identified specific features of teacher-student interactions in the classroom, observed using standardized measurements, that were directly linked to student achievement over the course of an academic year, even after accounting...