Sea waves could be converted into electricity by use of different Outer Continental Shelf energy apparatuses including terminators, point absorbers, attenuators, and overtopping devices. Using horizontal axis turbines, ocean currents can also be used to generate electricity. Likewise, sea tides can be employed to produce electricity by using tidal energy turbines. Temperature differences between the upper and lower waters of the sea may also be used to generate power through the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion process. Methane hydrate may as well be utilized to generate electricity. This paper examines these electricity-production methods.
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An umbilical line feeds power to a seabed junction box that links to other devices and transmits power to the coast through a shared sub ocean cable.
II. 2. Terminators
Terminators (see figs. 2 and 3) elongate perpendicularly to wave direction and reflect or capture the energy contained in waves. They are normally nearshore or onshore, with a few floating editions that may be used offshore in existence. Within the fluctuating water column terminator, water goes in through some subsurface aperture into a chamber and thus entraps air overhead. Due to wave activity, trapped water moves up ward and downward like some piston. Such movement pushes air into an aperture that is linked to a turbine that produces energy. Based on dimensions and wave parameters, terminators have energy scores of between 500 kW and 2 MW.
II. 3. Overtopping gadgets
Similar to a dam, overtopping gadgets (see fig. 4) feature basins into which inward bound waves enter and cause a small upsurge of pressure. After it is released, water streams back into the sea through gravity. The retreating water releases energy that is utilized to rotate hydro turbines and to create power. By channeling waves through in-house turbines that later release water into the ocean, special floating podiums may as well generate electricity.
II. 4. Point absorbers
Point absorbers denote floating devices that comprise constituents that shift in relation to each other owing to wave activity. These gadgets may feature a suspended buoy that is inside a container. To convert energy, the devices use the fall and rise of wave height at one point. The relative upward and downward bobbing movement that is initiated by waves drives hydraulic or electromechanical energy converters that produce power.
III. SEA CURRENT ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
Different equipment for harvesting sea currents, including horizontal axis turbines (see fig. 6), are being developed. Sea currents move in a single direction and are comparatively constant. Engineers have constructed and tried out sample horizontal axis turbines. These gadgets have blades that are turned by currents. The ensuring energy moves into turbines that rotate and thus create energy.
IV. OCEAN TIDE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
Based on tidal cycles, tidal energy turbines and systems (see figs. 7 and 8) generate electricity within near shore sea surroundings. Tides are witnessed along the shore and flow in different directions. Tidal currents fluctuate from time to time.
V. OTEC ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
OTEC denotes an electricity production system (see fig. 9) that is based on minute temperature differences between the upper and lower sections of ocean water. The system comprises five components namely: evaporator, turbine, condenser, pump, and power producer. These constituents are linked through a tube that holds some functioning liquid such as ammonia.
The pump pushes the...